IBSAT

Practice Test – 9

Quantitative Ability


 

 

1.                  A cylindrical ingot 6 cms. In diameter and 6 cms in height is melted and 12 spheres, all of the same size, are made from the material obtained.  What is the diameter of each sphere?

a.       2 cms

b.      3 cms

c.       √3 cms

d.      √6 cms

2.                  Three strings of a musical instrument vibrate 6, 8 and 12 times a second respectively.  When will all the three vibrate together again?

a.       24 sec

b.      12 sec

c.       8 sec

d.      ½ sec

3.                  A large cube is formed from the material obtained by melting three smaller cubes of 3,4 and 5 cms. Side.  What is the ratio of the total surface areas of the smaller cubes and the larger cube?

a.       2 : 1

b.      3 : 2

c.       25 : 18

d.      27 : 20

4.                  Two trains travel in the same direction at 50 and 32 kmph, respectively.  A man in the slower train observes that 15 seconds elapse before the faster train completely passes him.  What is the lengthy of the faster train?

a.       75 metres

b.      100 metres

c.       150 metres

d.      341.66 metres

5.                  B receives 1/8 of the profits of a business as wages and the rest is divided between B and A in proportion to their capitals of Rs.6000 and Rs.8000 respectively.  If in a year B receives Rs.1000 in aggregate, what does A receive?

a.       Rs.800

b.      Rs.1000

c.       Rs.1200

d.      Rs.1250

6.                  In a hemispherical igloo, an Eskimo’s head just touches the roof when he stands erect at the center of the floor, but his son cap play over an area of 9856 Sq. units of the floor without stopping.  If the father’s height is 65 units, what is his son’s height?      

a.       25 units

b.      33 units

c.       36 units

d.      56 units

7.                  A contractor undertakes to do a piece of work in 40 days.  He engages 100 men and after 35 days an additional 100 men, and completes the work.  How many days behind schedule he world have been, if had not engaged the additional men?           

a.       5

b.      8

c.       12

d.      15

8.                  8% of y is y% of?

a.       X

b.      y/100

c.       x/100

d.      100x

9.                  Cost of 3 cricket balls = cost of 2 pairs of leg pads cost of 3 pairs of leg pads = cost of 2 pairs of gloves cost of 3 pairs of gloves = cost of 2 cricket bats. If a cricket bat costs Rs.54, what is the cost of a cricket ball?

a.       Rs.10

b.      Rs.12

c.       Rs.14

d.      Rs.16

10.              The area of the shaded portion in the figure below is

 

a.       49

b.      50(Π-1)

c.       25(Π-2)

d.      49(Π-1)

11.              At how many minutes past 8 O’ clock does the minute hand coincide with the hour hand between 8 .m. and 9 p.m.?

a.       40

b.      42 2/7

c.       43

d.      43 7/11

12.              Half the girls and one-third of the boys of a college reside in the hostel.  What fractional part of the students are hostel dwellers if the total number of girls in the college is 100 and is ¼ of the total strength?

a.       5/6

b.      2/5

c.       5/12

d.      3/8

13.              Two circular wheels of the same radius ‘r’ have their central hubs at the distance of a ‘a’ from one anther.  The minimum length of a fan felt which will pass around both the wheels is

a.      

b.     

c.       2a + πr

d.      2(a + πr)

14.              A gets 30% marks in an examination but fails by 50 marks, whereas B gets 50 marks more than necessary for passing when he secures 40%.  What is the passing percentage and what are the maximum marks?

a.       35% : 1000

b.      35% : 900

c.       33% : 1000

d.      33% : 900

15.              y is positive integer and x = y – 1/y, as y increases x:

a.       Increases

b.      Decreases

c.       Remains Unaltered

d.      Decreases rapidly

16.              How long will two trains 110 meters and 90 meters long, traveling at 36 and 50.4 kmph., take to completely pass one another if they are traveling in the same direction?

a.       5 secs.

b.      8.9 secs

c.       8.95 secs

d.      50 secs.

17.              My watch is 1 minute slow at 1 p.m. on Tuesday and is 2 minutes fast at 1 p.m. on Thursday.  When did it show the correct time?

a.       1:00 p.m. on Wednesday

b.      5:00 a.m. on Wednesday

c.       1:00 p.m. on Wednesday

d.      5:00 p.m. on Wednesday

18.              If the largest possible square is inscribed in a circle of 2π units circumference, then the area of circle not occupied by the square (in sq. units) is

a.       2π - √2

b.      π – 2

c.       2π – 2

d.      π - √2

19.              A cylinder has its height and diameter equal to ‘d’ units.  What is the volume of the cylinder in cubic units?

a.       d3/4

b.      πd3

c.       π d3/4

d.      πd2

20.              The area of the four walls of a room is 1080 sq.ft.  If the height and length of the room are in the ratio of 2 : 5 and the height and breadth in the ratio of 4: 5, what is the area of the roof?

a.       240 sq.ft

b.      450 sq.ft

c.       540 sq.ft

d.      720 sq.ft

21.              Three equal glasses are filled with mixtures of milk and water.  In the 1st glass the proportion of milk and water is 3:1, in the 2nd 2:1 and in the 3rd 1:1.  If the contents of all the glasses are poured into a single container, what is the proportion of milk and water in it?

a.       6 : 3

b.      2 : 3

c.       13 : 23

d.      23 : 13

22.              In what proportion must a number be divided so that ¼ of the first part and 2/3 of the second part are together equal to ½ the original number?

a.       2 : 3

b.      3 : 2

c.       1 : 4

d.      5 : 4

23.              A motor cyclist goes from Mumbai to Pune, a distance of 192 kms., at an average speed of 32 kmph.  Another man starts from Mumbai by car, 2 ½ hours after the first and reaches Pune ½ an hour earlier.  What is the ratio of the speed of the motor cycle and the car?

a.       1 : 2

b.      1 : 3

c.       10 : 27

d.      5 : 4

24.              In the figure below ABCD is a rectangle with AD = 4 units and AE = EB.  EF is perpendicular to DB and is half of DF.  If the area of the triangle EEF is 5 sq. units what is the area of ABCD in square units?

 

Text Box: A

 

 

a.       10

b.      42

c.       18√3

d.      24

25.              The velocity (v) with which a falling body reaches the ground is related to the distance from which it falls (s) and the acceleration due to gravity (a) by the relation s = v2 /2a.  What is the ratio of the velocity of 2 objects, one falling from a height of 32 feet and another from 64 feet, on reaching the ground?

a.       √ : 1

b.      1 : √2

c.       1 : √a

d.      √a : a

26.              Which is the greatest number of three digits which when divided by 6, 9 or 12 leaves a remainder of 1 in each case?

a.       949

b.      961

c.       973

d.      987

27.              Find the value of P if x2 – 2px + 8p – 15 = 0 has equal roots

a.       1/5, 3

b.      1/3, 0.5

c.       3,5

d.      1/3, 1/5

28.              Find a positive numbers whose square diminished by 119 is equal to ten times the excess of the number over 8

a.       19

b.      13

c.       14

d.      12

29.              At 12 noon, A starts by Taxi from X and reaches Y which is 120 Km away in 4 hrs. B starting at Y at 1 pm can reach X at 3:40 pm.  When will the distance between them be 7.5 Km?

a.       1.36 pm & 1.48 pm

b.      2.06 pm & 2.18 pm

c.       1.54 & 2.06 pm

d.      2.00 pm & 2.12 pm

30.              A laborer is engaged for 30 days on condition that he receives Rs.20 for each day he works, and loses Rs.5 for each day he is absent.  If he is absent.  If he receives Rs.450 in all, for how many days did he remain absent.

a.       4 days

b.      8 days

c.       5 days

d.      6 days

31.              If x < 15 and y > 15, then which of the following is always true?

a.       x ≥ y

b.      x + y < 0

c.       x – y > 0

d.      x – y < 0

32.              At a party where 6 couples were present, everyone shook hands once with others except with their own spouse.  How many handshakes were there totally.

a.       54

b.      126

c.       120

d.      60

33.              Find the smallest six digit integer which when divided by 2,3 leaves a remainder 1 in both cases

a.       100000

b.      100001

c.       100002

d.      100003

34.              If the sides of a triangle are 6√2, √48 and √24, find the smallest angle of the triangle?

a.       30°

b.      60°

c.       75°

d.      90°

35.              If the sum of the squares of 3 consecutive positive integers is divided by 3, the remainder is

a.       Always zero

b.      Always 1

c.       Always 2

d.      Can’t say

36.              An urn contains 75 balls; 35 are white, and 25 of these white balls are swirled.  The rest of them are black, and 30 of the black ones are swirled.  The balls that are not swirled are clear.  What is the probability of drawing a black, clear ball?

a.       2/15

b.      ¼

c.       ¾

d.      8/15

37.              Find the probability of throwing at least one ace with a single die in two trials?

a.       5/36

b.      6/36

c.       1/36

d.      1/12

38.              What is the minimum value of the function F(x) = 17 + |x-9|

a.       9

b.      17

c.       35

d.      8

39.              Let the smallest 5 digit number, be ‘p’, which when divided by 17 leaves a remainder of 7 and when divided by 10 leaves a remainder of 3.  What is the remainder when ‘p’ is divided by 7?

a.       2

b.      3

c.       0

d.      1

40.              What is the probability that a couple’s second child will be a girl, given that their first child was a girl?

a.       1

b.      ½

c.       ¼

d.      0

 

 


 

Data Adequacy


 

Directions:  Answer the questions 41-65 based on the following instructions.

All the following questioins (41-65) have two statements labeled (i) and (ii).  Use the data given in (i) and (ii) together with other available information (such as number of hours in a day, definition of clock-wise mathematical facts etc.) to decide whether the statements are sufficient to answer the question.  Please mark the appropriate answer for the problem given using the following alternatives.

a.       If statement(i) alone is sufficient to answer the question, but statement (ii) alone is not sufficient

b.      If statement (ii) alone is sufficient to answer the question, but statement (i) alone is not sufficient

c.       If both statements (i) and (ii) together are sufficient to answer the question, but neither statement alone is sufficient to answer the question.

d.      If each statement alone is sufficient to answer the question

41.              A square and rectangle are of equal area.  The shorter side of the rectangle is 5m.  The perimeter of the square is?

                                       i.            Area of rectangle is 25 sq.mt

                                     ii.            One side of the rectangle is four times the other

42.              The side of a square and the diameter of a circle are equal.  What is the circumference of the circle?

                                       i.            The diagonal of the square is 25 m long

                                     ii.            The area for the square is more than the area of the circle

43.              Two sides of a triangle are 3m and 4 m long.  What is the length of the third side?

                                       i.            Are of a square is 6 sq.m

                                     ii.            Two sides which are 3 m and 4 m long form an angle of 60° with each other.

44.              For a triangle the centroid, orthocenter and the in-center are the same point.  What is the area of the triangle?

                                       i.            The triangle is equilateral

                                     ii.            One side is 2m long

45.              The profits of Mickey Donals Tractors Ltd., for 1997-98 was $450,000.  What is the compounded annual growth rate in profits during the period 1993-98?

                                       i.            Profit in 1997-98 was 10% more than 1995-96

                                     ii.            Profit in 1993-94 was $200,000

46.              What is the percentage increase in the exports of crude oil for 1998-99 over the previous year?

                                       i.            Crude oil exports in 1997-98 was 300 million gallons, which is 10% more than that of 1996-97

                                     ii.            Crude oil exports for 1998-99 is 40% more than that of 1996-97

47.              If x : y = 4 : 5, p : q = 6 : 7 and u : v = 1:2 then x : v = ?

                                       i.            q:u=5:6

                                     ii.            y:u=1:3

48.              A flight covers three hundred miles from Dallas to Houston.  What is the average speed of the plane?

                                       i.            Had the speed been 50 mph more it would have taken 10 minutes less to cover the distance.

                                     ii.            Had the speed been 100 mph more it would have taken 25 minutes less to cover the distance.

49.              a2 + b2 = 25;   a+ b =?

                                                               i.      a – b = ½

                                                             ii.      a = 2b

50.              2x + 3y = 6, x = ?

                                                               i.      4x + 6y = 12

                                                             ii.      x = y/2

51.              What is the circumference of the circle?

                                                               i.      AB = BC = CA = 2cm

                                                             ii.      AB=3, BC=4, ABC = 90°

52.              The value of

a.       Cot2θ=1

b.      Sin2θ + Cos2θ = 1

53.              What is the area of the pentagon shown in the figure?

                                       i.            Each side of the pentagon is 5 cm long

                                     ii.            The perpendicular distance from the center to any side is 3 cm.

54.              What is the sum of all internal angles of a regular polygon?

                                       i.            The external angle is 60°

                                     ii.            The polygon has 6 sides.

55.              Akash, Bharat, Chintal and Devang are four friends.  Akash is taller than Bharat and Chintal is shorter than Devang.  Who is the tallest among the four?

                                       i.            Bharat is shorter than Devang

                                     ii.            Bharat and Devang are of equal height

56.              There are 10 girls in a class.  What is the percentage of girls in the school?

                                       i.            The average no. of girls in any class is 15

                                     ii.            There are 600 students in the school of 8 classes.

57.              The average number of executives on any floor of the 16 floor Cyber Towers is 98.5.  What is the maximum number of executives on any single floor?

                                       i.            Average of 14 floors is 90

                                     ii.            The maximum number of executives on any single floor is 1.5 times average of all the other floors.

58.              Selling price of a watch is Rs.1000.  What is the profit percentage?

                                       i.            Markup over cost price is 25%

                                     ii.            Cost price is at least 75% of the selling price

59.              A paraffin barrel is transported in three stages before finally reaching the customer.  What will be the quantity of paraffin that reaches the customer if 500 litres was sent originally?

                                       i.            Wastage is 20% in the first stage, 25% in the second stage and 30% in the third stage.

                                     ii.            Average overall wastage is 28%

60.              What is the height of Qutub Minar?

                                       i.            At 30° inclination of the sun, its shodow bis 50 m long

                                     ii.            Each floor of Qutub Minar is 3 mts. In height.

61.              In the adjacent figure, ABCD is a parallelogram and E is the midpoint of CD.  What is

                                                               i.     

                                                             ii.     

62.              A girl has certain number of eggs in a basket.  She drops them and all the eggs she had in the basket?

                                       i.            Had she counted eggs taking out 2,3,4 or 5 eggs at a time she’d have been left with exactly 1,2,3 or 4 eggs respectively.

                                     ii.            Had she bought 50 more eggs, the product of the number of eggs and her age would have been equal to 796.

63.              What is the value of x3 + x2 + x + 1 ?

                                                               i.      (x4-1)=624

                                                             ii.      (x-1)=4

64.              If a2 + 4ab + b2 = 114 then a = ?

                                                               i.      3a+4b=76

                                                             ii.      b = (a/2)+3

65.              The first term of a 10 term arithmetic progression is 7.  What is the sum of the series?

                                       i.            The difference between the first and second terms is 5.

                                     ii.            17 and 37 are two numbers in the series.

 

For the questions 66-80, you are given a statement or an assertion followed by two statements marked I and II.  Mark the answers as follows:

a.         If the validity of the statement can be ascertained by just (i) but not (ii)

b.         If the validity of the statement can be ascertained by just (ii) but not (i)

c.         If the validity of the statement can be ascertained by using both (i) and (ii) but not either (i) or (ii) alone.

d.         The validity of the statement cannot be ascertained by the information given in (i) and (ii)

66.              Michael earns more than Ashok

                                       i.            Michael earns Rs.20,000

                                     ii.            Ashok earns Rs.3,000 more than Michael’s wife.

67.              Russian girls are beautiful

                                       i.            Some European girls are beautiful

                                     ii.            All Russians are Europeans

68.              India has lost the 5 test series against South Africa

                                       i.            South Korea has lot one test

                                     ii.            Two tests ended in draw.

69.              Some dogs are cats

                                       i.            All cats are dogs

                                     ii.            Some cats are not dogs

70.              Japan is in North America

                                       i.            Fishing is the main industry in Japan

                                     ii.            North Americans like fish.

71.              Krishna is Ram’s father

                                       i.            Krishna had three sons

                                     ii.            Krishna’s grandson is Ram’s son

72.              Mahatma Gandhi is the father of our nation

                                       i.            Mahatma Gandhi is an Indian

                                     ii.            We Indians call Mahatma Gandhi ‘Father of the Nation’ as he helped us in getting freedom from British rule.

73.              The total cost of a new Maruti Van is Rs.2,50,000

                                       i.            Base cost of a new Maruti Van is Rs.2,00,000

                                     ii.            Sales tax is 9%, registration 10%, insurance 3% and other charges 3% of the base price

74.              Punjabis are healthy

                                       i.            North Indians are healthy

                                     ii.            Punjab is in North India

75.              Cigarette smoking is good for health

                                       i.            Cigarette has nicotine

                                     ii.            Nicotine is injurious to health

76.              A mathematician meets an old friend after several years.  While chatting, the friend tells the mathematician that he has three children and that the product of their ages is 36.  The mathematician can tell the exact ages of the three children.

                                       i.            The sum of their agesw is equal to the number of centuries Sachin Tendulkar had scored in one-day internationals as on Jan 01, 1999.  The mathematician looks at this and says the information is insufficient.

                                     ii.            The youngest daughter is really the youngest.

77.              Four brothers are going in a car.  The number plate of the car gives you the birth year of the eldest brother.  The age of the youngest brother is 75% of the age of the second brother.  Age of the third brother is 25.

                                       i.            The sum of the ages of the eldest and the youngest is same as the sum of the ages of the second and  the third brother.

                                     ii.            The age of the second son is 32.

78.              Labrador is canine and domestic

                                       i.            All gods are canine and domestic

                                     ii.            Labradors are dogs

79.              Alexander invaded India in 770 B.C.

                                       i.            Alexander defeated the Persian army in 772 B.C.

                                     ii.            Alexander died of blood cancer in 772 B.C.

80.              No business school in Asia other than Icfaian Business School has an annual intake of over 400 students.

                                       i.            Some business schools in Asia admit over 300 students every year.

                                     ii.            Icfaian Business School has an annual intake of 450 students.


 

 

Test of Vocabulary and Writing Skills

 


 

Fill in the blanks (Question Nos 81-86) with the most appropriate words given below:

81.              Pakistan is still not economically viable and though _______ important, it is militarily ______.

a.       Necessarily, strong

b.      Strategically, weak

c.       Scarcely, weak

d.      Independently, strong

82.              However __________ we are to change, the old dialogue intrudes into the present unsummoned, ______ us off from the here and now and transporting us back to early childhood.

a.       Sure, removing

b.      Determined, cutting

c.       Certain, remaining

d.      Much, making

83.              A ___________ shade of distinction is called __________.

a.       Fine, vindication

b.      Cross, profanity

c.       Subtle, nuance

d.      Complete, paradox

84.              At some private schools pupils are under the ______ of a ______.

a.       Guidance, palladium

b.      Tutelage, preceptor

c.       Coaching, rarity

d.      Consensus, mentor

85.              Like the __________ part of an iceberg, much of what is really interesting in the capital is not ____

a.       Inner, known

b.      Submerged, visible

c.       Greater, dangerous

d.      Upper, viable

86.              For some years past, Governments have been _____ and divided, parliaments have been incoherent and _____

a.       Inarticulate, responsive

b.      Unstable, domineering

c.       Weak, inchoate

d.      Vacillating, irresponsible

 

For question numbers 87-91, select the pair, which expresses the relationship similar to the one in the question:

 

87.              Philatelist : Stamps::

a.       Numismatist : Coins

b.      Jewelers : Jewels

c.       Cartographer : Maps

d.      Geneticist : Chromosomes

88.              Fox : Cunning ::

a.       Cat : playful

b.      Horse : runner

c.       Vixen : Cute

d.      Ant : Industrious

89.              Sailor : Pirate ::

a.       Police : Robbers

b.      Lion : Lamb

c.       Plant : Fungus

d.      Major : Sepay

90.              Sancho Panza; Don Quixote :: ______. Sherlock Holmes.

a.       Perry Mason

b.      Don Ameche

c.       Phantom

d.      John H. Waston

91.              _______ : woods :: eacth : terrestrial

a.       Urban

b.      Sylvan

c.       Log

d.      Planets

 

For questions 92-97, select the answer closest to the meaning:

92.              Ampersand

a.       &

b.      Figure of speech

c.       Material for glass

d.      Electrical unit

93.              Corollary

a.       Part of a flower

b.      Consequence

c.       Logical

d.      Artery of the heart

94.              Sporadic

a.       Erratic

b.      Relating to plants

c.       Occurring at regular intervals

d.      Momentary

95.              Oriflamme

a.       Fireworks

b.      Banner

c.       Detonation

d.      Sparkling Jewel

96.              Nepotism

a.       Misconduct

b.      Corruption

c.       Infringement

d.      Favoritism to kith * kin

97.              Disseminate

a.       Deceive

b.      Yield

c.       Spread

d.      Give

 

For questions 98-100, recast the phrase underlined to make the sentence grammatically correct:

98.              If people of India are united, this nation can become a source of  strength for the entire world.

a.       Could become a source of

b.      Can become resourceful for

c.       Can become a source with

d.      No corrections required

99.              Fact finding team which had been at the area found villagers giving information to the police

a.       Which had been for

b.      That lead to

c.       Which led to

d.      That had been to

100.          India’s outlook on the world is composing of the following elements.

a.       Is composed of

b.      Is composed by

c.       Is composed with

d.      Is comprised with

 

Answer the questions 101-106 based on the information given below:

Arrange the following sentences to form a meaningful paragraph.  Your answer would be a meaningful ordering of the choices mentioned below:

101.           

A         To a certain extent the place of superstition was taken up by logical reasons.

B.         This promoted rationalism among people

C.        Buddhism created and developed a new awareness in the field of intellect and culture.

D.        It taught people not to take things for granted but to reason with them.

a.         DBCA

b.         ADBC

c.         ACBD

d.         CDAB

102.           

A.        Japan which had become an imperialist power, invaded China in 1931.

B.         They called for boycott of Japanese goods.

C.        Later a tm of Indian doctors visited China and worked to realize their sufferings.

D.        Indian nationalists extended their support to Chinese against Japanese invaders.

a.         DCBA

b.         ADBC

c.         ABDC

d.         DBCA

103.           

A.        When no word, no image, no frame can make sense of what is out there

B.         One such moment is when the reality is too final to be represented by imagination

C.        Art of representation has its moment of modesty.

D.        For every act that visits history is its defiance as well as redemption

a.         ABCD

b.         CBAD

c.         CDBA

d.         CABD

104.           

A.        Much more important is the need to nurture talent

B.         In this context the plans for sports and games assumes great importance

C.        At the present stage of our national development, we need immense energy, stamina and discipline.

D.        Only in this way can Indian sports look up and forge ahead in the coming years.

a.         BACD

b.         CBAD

c.         CBDA

d.         CABD

105.           

A.        For the Marxist it’s all a question of lands ownership, while for imperialist it’s all a matter of removing trade barrier.

B.         What is needed is to first agree on the objectives of reform and food security must objectives of reform and food security must undoubtedly rank high on the list of objectives.

C.        Reforming the agricultural sector continues to mean different things to different people

D.        But there is little to be gained by reducing reform in agriculture to the pet theory of the reformer.

a.         ABCD

b.         CADB

c.         CABD

d.         DBCA

106.           

A.        But ironically, their decline also began in this very period.

B.         This has happened in Bihar with telling ramifications to Mumihars.

C.        In 1967, they had emerged as the 2nd largest group in the state assembly.

D.        Replacement of one group of political elite by another is a social theory few deny.

a.         DCBA

b.         DABC

c.         DBCA

d.         None of the above

 

For the questions 107-110, find out the correct meaning of the idiom:

107.          Beyond all questions

a.       Above the question

b.      Without any doubt

c.       Unanswerable question

d.      Without asking question

108.          The ins and outs

a.       All the possibilities

b.      Implications

c.       Ramifications

d.      Complete details

109.          To kick up a row

a.       To start crying

b.      To create confusion

c.       To fuss

d.      To agree

110.          To crow over

a.       To rush over

b.      To triumph over

c.       To concentrate over

d.      To cry over

 

 


 

 

Analytical Reasoning


 

Fill in the blanks (Q. Nos. 111-118)

111.          Paleography: Writings: Ichthyology?

a.       Fishes

b.      Whales

c.       Oysters

d.      Mammals

112.          Fissiparous : Oviparous : Division : ?

a.       Owl

b.      Egg

c.       Accuracy

d.      Verification

113.          if 5 10 = 25

100 64 = 1296

Then 36  11 = ?

a.       225

b.      825

c.       625

d.      None of the above

114.          if 9  4 = 32

16  25 = 45

Then 36  121 = ?

a.       611

b.      61

c.       58

d.      411

 

115.          11, 12, 14,17,22,29 ?

a.       40

b.      53

c.       38

d.      None of the above

116.          100, 99, 96, 91, 84, 75, ?

a.       86

b.      64

c.       100

d.      None of the above

117.          If ’20-10’ means 200; ‘8÷4’ means 12 ; ‘6x2’ means 4 and 12+3 means 4, then

100-10 x 1000 ÷ 1000 + 100 x 10 = ?

a.       1090

b.      Zero

c.       1900

d.      20

118.          In a class Vidya ranks 7th from the top, Divya is 7 ranks ahead of Medha and 3 ranks behind Vidya.  Sushama, who is 4th from the bottom, is 32 ranks behind Medha.  How many students are there in the class.

a.       52

b.      49

c.       50

d.      51

 

There are two sets of figures viz. Problem figures and answer figures.  Problem figures form a kind of series.  You have to select one figure from the answer figures marked A, B, C, and D which will continue the series given in the problem figures.

119.           

120.           

121.           

122.               


 

 

Answer the questions 123-126 based on the information given below:

Given below are four diagrams, one of which describes the relationship among the three classes given in each of the four questions that follow.  You have to decide which of the diagrams is the most suitable for a particular set of classes.  The number of that diagram is your answer.

123.          School, teacher, student

124.           Grain, Rice, Wheat

125.           Water, Fish, Frog

126.           Human, Universe, Earth

 


 

 

Answer the questions 127-130 based on the information given below:

In each question below are given three statements followed by three conclusions numbered I, II and III.  You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly ‘known facts.  Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusion logically follows from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

127.          Statements:

A.                 All locks are keys

B.                 All keys are bats

C.                 Some clocks are locks

Conclusions:

I.                          Some bats are locks

II.                       Some clocks are keys

III.                     All keys are locks

a.       Only I and II follow

b.      Only II and III follows

c.       Only I follows

d.      Only II follows

128.          Statements:

A.                 Some cups are pots

B.                 All pots are tunes

C.                 All cups are bottles

Conclusions:

I.                          Some bottles are tubes

II.                       Some pots are tubes

III.                     All cups are bottles

a.       Only I and II follow

b.      Only II and III follows

c.       Only I and III  follow

d.      I , II & III follow

129.          Statements:

A.                 All papers are books

B.                 All bags are books

C.                 Some purses are bags

Conclusions:

I.                    Some papers are bags

II.                 Some books are papers

III.               Some books are purses.

a.       Only I follows

b.      Only II and III follow

c.       Only I and II follow

d.      Only I & III follow

130.          Statements:

A.                 Some cars are jeeps

B.                 All boxes are jeeps

C.                 All pens are cars

Conclusion

I.                    Some cars are boxes

II.                 Some pens are jeeps

III.               Some boxes are cars

a.       None follows

b.      Only I and II follow

c.       Only II follow

d.      Only II follows

e.       Only II and III flow

131.          If the given numbers are arranged in descending order based on the sum of digit of each number, which one will be in the middle?

857 495 375 386 582 916 613

a.       386

b.      916

c.       375

d.      495

132.          Study the following matrix and fill up appropriate number in place of the question mark (?)

8

12

13

6

5

10

2

8

?

4

15

18

 

a.       15

b.      5

c.       6

d.      3

133.          Which number will come in place o the question mark?

a.       99

b.      144

c.       65

d.      124

134.          If A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, D = 4, E = 5 etc. what does the number 61.35 make?

a.       Deaf

b.      Learn

c.       Gate

d.      Face

135.          In  a certain code DELHI is written as ‘WVSOR’, How is ‘CHAIR’ is written in that code?

a.       XTAQI

b.      XSZRI

c.       WSZQI

d.      WTBSJ

136.          Which pair of letters has the same relationship between them with respect to their position in the English alphabet as the pair AL has between them in the word GRADUAL?

a.       RA

b.      DU

c.       GR

d.      UA

137.          How many pair of letters are there in the word ‘OCCUPATION’ which have the same unmber of letters between them as in the English Alphabet?

a.       One

b.      Two

c.       Three

d.      None of the above

138.          If the 2nd, 3rd, 9th, 10th, 16th and 21st letters of  English alphabet are so rearranged to form one meaningful English word taking each letters only once, what will be the third letter of that word?  If no such words can be formed your answer will be X.

a.       L

b.      C

c.       B

d.      X

Answer the questions 139 -141 based on the information given below:

Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:

                                                               i.      A,B,C,D,E,F,G, & H are standing in a row facing north

                                                             ii.      B is not neighbor of G

                                                            iii.      F is to the immediate right of G and neighbor  of E

                                                           iv.      G is not at the extreme end

                                                             v.      A is sixth to the left of E.

                                                           vi.      H is sixth to the right of C.

139.          Who among the following are neighbors.?

a.       AB

b.      CG

c.       FH

d.      CA

140.          Which among the following defines the position of D?

a.       Fourth to the right of H

b.      Third to the right of A

c.       Neighbor of B & F

d.      None of these

141.          Which of the following is true?

a.       C is to the immediate left of A

b.      D is neighbor of B & F

c.       A & E are at the extreme erids

d.      G is immediate right of D

Answer the questions 142-144 based on the information given below:

In a certain code language

i.                     ‘La Re Ga’ means ‘Wine is  Tangy’

ii.                   ‘Ma Pa dha’ means ‘Nights are Dark’

iii.                  ‘Re Ne’ means ‘Cold wine’

iv.                 ‘Dha Ma Sa’ means ‘ Nights are bad’

 

142.          Which of the following is code for ‘Dark’?

a.       Sa

b.      Re

c.       Pa

d.      Dha

143.          What is the code for ‘Cold bad sine”?

a.       Re Na Ma

b.      Re Ga Ma

c.       Sa Ne Re

d.      None of the above

144.          Which of the following is code for tangy’?

a.       Ne

b.      Dha

c.       La Cannot be determined

 

Answer the questions 145 – 150 based on the information given below:

Read the following statements:

                                                               i.      Seeta, Rajender and Surender are children of Mr. & Mrs. Aggarwal.

                                                             ii.      Ramu, Raja and Sunil are the children of Mr. & Mrs. Malhotra.

                                                            iii.      Sunil and seta are mattied and Ashok and Sanjay are their children.

                                                           iv.      Geeta and Rakesh are the children of Mr. and Mrs. Gupta.

                                                             v.      Geeta is married to Surinder and has three children named Rita, Sonu and Raju.

145.          What is Sanjay’s Surname?

a.        Malhotra

b.      Gupta

c.       Aggrawal

d.      None of the above

146.          How is Rakesh related to Rita?

a.       Brother

b.      Brother-in-law

c.       Uncle

d.      None of the above

147.          How is Rajender related to Raju?

a.       Brother

b.      Uncle

c.       Brother-in-law

d.      None of the above

148.          Sunil and Rakesh are related as:

a.       Brothers

b.      Cousins

c.       Brother-in-law

d.      None of the above

149.          Renu is Sanjay’s

a.       Sister

b.      Sister-in-law

c.       Cousin

d.      None of the above

150.          Raju’s surname is :

a.       Gupta

b.      Malhotra

c.       Aggrawal

d.      None of the above

 

 


 

 

Reading Comprehension


 

 

Answer the questions 151-180 based on the following instructions.

Each passage in the section is followed by questions based on its content.  After reading the passage choose the best answer to each question.

Answer the questions 151-160 based on the passage – 1.

PASSAGE – 1

October 12 was observed as the “Day of 6 billion” when the world population crossed the six billion mark.  Over a billion are still deprived of basic needs on the eve of the next millennium.

Women may be having fewer children than ever before and population growth has certainly slowed down-from 2.4 to 1.3 per cent in 30 years.  But global population is still rising by abaout 78 million a year, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).

Half the world is under 25 years of age and there are over a billion young people in the 15-24 age group – parents of the next generation.  So the world population will continue to grow in the next few decades due to both improved healthcare and the large base of the reproductive group.  The population division of the U.N. Department for Social and Economic Affairs projects it to reach 8.9 billion in 2050. – lower than the 9.4 billion that was predicted in 1996.

Unfortunately, most of the growth takes place in the poorest and least – prepared countries.  The fastest growth regions are sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South and western Asia. Of the 4.8 billion people living in the developing countries three fifths lack basic sanitation.  A third have no access to clean water, a quarter do not have adequate housing and a fifth have no access to modern health services.

Demographic factors such as the presence of an unprecedented number of young people, an ageing population, urbanization and international migration assume  importance in planning for poverty alleviation, provision of the basic social services, ensuring food security, conserving resources and protecting the environment.

According to the UNFPA’s ‘State of the World Population’ report for 1999, “a demographic transition from high to low fertility and morality is under way and has already occurred in much of the world.  Global life expectancy has risen from 46 to 66 years in the past half century.  “But progress varies widely from region to region and within a country too.

Fertility has also declined but unvenely.

In 61 countries, which account for 44 per cent of the world’s population, couples are heaving fewer than two children they need to replace themselves.  But population will continue to grow for several decades because of the vast numbers entering the child – bearing years.  This momentum will account for up to two thirds of the projected growth in population.  Raising mothers’ age at first birth from 18 to 23 can reduce this momentum by over 40 percent.

One of the major problems of population explosion has been migration and urbanization – the shifting population patterns.  In 1960, 70 percent of the worlds people lived in the developing countries.  Today, is is 80 percent and these countries account for 95 percent of the population growth.

Cities have been the center of growth.  Four decades age, one in three persons lived in a city; today almost half of the population lives in cities. By 2030, it is projected that almost 60 percent of the population will live in urban cities, that too in megaticies with more than million.

The UNFPA says global population quadrupled this century, growing faster than at anytime in the past.  At the beginning of the 20th century, the world’s population was 1.5 billion, which reached two billion in 1927, three billion 1960, four billion in 1974 and five billion in 1987.  The last billion has been added in just 12 years.

With a realization of what such an increase in population and that too in less developed countries would mean, a global consensus was hammered out through an international Conference on Population and Development in 1994 – the Cairo consensus. As many as 179 countries agreed that population and development were inextricably linked; that empowering women and meeting people’s needs for education and health (including reproductive health) were imperative.

Advancing gender equality, eliminating violence against women and ensuring women’s ability to control their fertility are acknowledge as the cornerstones of the population policy.

In the early 1950, couples in developed countries had an average of 2.8 children.  Now the number has dipped to 1.6 in the less developed region, the fertility rate has dropped from 6.2 children per woman to less than 3.  It is projected tto fall to less than 2.1 by 2045.

It is becoming clear to all countries that declining birth rates will create the possibility of economic gains as young people grow up and become part of the wrkforce while fewer children are born. To achieve this benefit countries will have to strengthen education and healthcare, and adopt other supportive policies.

A 1999 review of the Cairo consensus has urged Governments to initiate concrete action to increase skilled attendance at child – birth review laws affecting reproductive health, increase spending on reproductive health, involve communities, NGOs and the private sector in such programmes, promote male responsibility, ensure availability of services and provide testing as well as counseling services and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV-AIDS as part of primary healthcare.

The review has shown that more than 5,85, 000 women in the developing countries die each year and at least 7 million women suffer infection or injury as a result of pregnancy.  About 70,000 women die due to unsafe abortion; there are over 330 million cases of treatable sexually-transmitted diseases annually.  Every minute 11 new HIV infections are occurring.

The  State of World Population Report 1999 says today’s young people are frequently at risk of unwanted pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, sexual exploitation and alienation from parents and communities”.  More than 14 milion adolescent girls give birth year, most of them from unwanted pregnancy.

In Kenya, it is estimated that about 10,000 girls have leaves school each year because of pregnancy, according to the report, which calls for reproductive health education for all school children.  In the Dominican Republic, about one in four girls in the 15-19 age group is either pregnant or has already given birth, with little or no access to health services.

At the Cairo conference, it was estimated that $17 billion would be required annually by the year 2000 for population and reproductive health activirties.  Two-thirds of it will come from developing countries and a third ($5.7 billion) from international donors.  But, as of 1997, developing countries were spending about $7.7 billion annually.  Unfortunately, the bulk of this was spent by five big countries – China, India.  Indonesia, Iran and Mexico.  International assistance was less than $2 billion.  The least developed nations need substantial assistance to equip themselves for the unequal battle.

After all, within their limited resources, they have also to provide for other basic facilities such as shelter, water supply and food, besides education and a health.  “The shortfall in international assistance is a threat not merely to the Cairo programme of action but to global stability and security,” says the UNFPA, warning that unless funding increases substantially, there will be continued high rates of female literacy, unwanted pregnancy, abortion, material and child death and even a faster spread of the HIV/AIDS.

The U.N. programme on AIDS estimates that 33.4 million people were HIV positives as of December 1998 and 2.5 million died of the disease in 1998, two million of them in Africa.  One half of all new infections occur in young people aged between 15 and 24.

The decisions taken in the next decade and implementation of the Cairo agenda will determine how fast the world adds the next billion people.

In India, the population is projected to cross the one-billion mark by March 2000 and unless the less developed States in the north fall in line, it will overtake China by the middle of the 21st century.

151.          The author in the passage feels that the following is the most important reason for future growth in population

a.       Global life expectancy has risen from 46 to 66 years in the past half century

b.      Low mortality and low fertility.

c.       The growth is taken place in the poorest and the least prepared countries.

d.      The “parents of the next generation” will be responsible for population growth and better health facilities.

152.          Which one of the following factor is not a likely consequence of population growth in the developing countries.

a.       Lack of basic sanitation

b.      No access to clean water

c.       Inadequate housing

d.      Women having fewer children

153.          The following demographic factor is not mentioned by the author in planning for poverty alleviation, social needs, food security and protecting environment

a.       Urbanization

b.      International migration

c.       Education levels of population

d.      Age of population

154.          The author feels that the momentum in population growth can be significantly reduced with the help of

a.       Taking measures to increase the expectancy of life from 46 to 66 years.

b.      Ensuring a uniform life expectancy rate across different parts of world.

c.       Couples having – “fewer” children.

d.      The rise in mother’s age at first birth form 18 to 23 years.

155.          Which of the following country (ies) is /are responsible for the highest population growth

a.       India

b.      China

c.       African countries

d.      East Asia

156.          According to the author, the cornerstones of any population policy should be :

a.       Control of ageing population

b.      Women allowed to ensure control of their fertility

c.       Controlling the migration and urbanization

d.      Strengthening education and health care

157.          One of the following point was not reached in ‘Cairo Consensus’

a.       The population growth the development are linked to each other.

b.      Empowering women

c.       Raising mother’s age at first birth from 18 to 23.

d.      Counseling services from sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS.

158.          The unwarranted pregnancy  in young girls is the major problem of

a.       Kenya

b.      Indonesia

c.       India

d.      Mexico

159.          One of the following is true in the context of population growth with reference to India

a.       More number of HIV/AIDS cases are being reported

b.      Unwarranted pregnancy is school going children.

c.       Less developed states of North India should fall in line to control population growth.

d.      None of the above

160.          The apt name that can be given to the passage is

a.       Day of 6 billion

b.      The count is 6 billion

c.       HIV/AIDS transmission and population growth

d.      Less developed countries and population growth implications.

 

Answer the questions 161-170 based on passage-2

PASSAGE – 2

Fifty years are not a long time in a nation’s history.  But in China’s case, a very large part of that history already seems quaint. It is as if the country straddled in this brief period two entirely different worlds and times – the first dominated by Mao and woven around the socialist Utopia which ultimately collapsed under the weight of its tyrannical excesses in 1978 and the second by Deng Xiaoping, one of his close comrades in the socialist journey, who destroyed the Maoist legacy and inadvertently launched China’s capitalist revolution.  The history of China’s second republic founded in 1949 is thus a sage of two revolutions both led by the communist party.  And it is the contradictory legacies of the twin revolutions that came to the force as the Communist Party of China recently celebrated the anniversary of its rise to power.

For the people the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the founding of their second Republic – the first was founded in 1911 and it died with the defeat of the Kuomintang in the civil war – bring extremely mixed feelings.  Their lives improved beyond recognition in these years.  Incomes, literacy, health, housing, infrastructure, industrial and agricultural production and trade have all seen spectacular growth since 1978.  China is still developing nation that is largely agrarian but it is already one of the largest economies and major power.

The people hope that the nation will finally get a popularly sustainable, law-governed, feee and stable political system which remains the major unfulfilled goal of China’s revolutionary course this century.  China’s tumultuous five decades witnessed extreme persecution and destruction f countless lives that  were never necessary.  The imposition and perpetuation of an authoritarian state – with some raison d’etre for bringing about order and stability in the immediate post revolutionary years – became one of the most potent causes of national suffering.

The revolution that catapulated the Communist Party to power in 1949 after two decades of civil war came with the promise of political stability, national unity, economic welfare, democratization and the achievement of great power status.  In the initial years, achievements were recorded in most fields.  The CPC was in control; it was led by a small group of cadres who shared a common ideology; and it provided stability after years of chaos that resulted from warlordism and civil war.  Land was given to the tillers and the basis laid for raid rural growth.  The cities were brought under effective political rule and an ambitious industrialization programme was launched with Soviet assistance.

Mao, however, was restive.  He wanted socialism and and industrial catch-up with the West by massive internal political and economic mobilization.  Efforts at collectivization of land began in 1955-56 By 1958, it rapidly graduated towards the move to build communes.  Land was taken away with no compensation and pooled under large, all encompassing collectives that swiftly came to dot rural China

Between 1957 and 1977, China was turned upside down in a wave of leftism.  Mao’s efforts to attain the socialist dream through the Great Leap Forward launched in 1958 and the Cultural Revolution launched in 1966 were political and economic disasters.  Average agricultural growth fell to 2 per cent – lower than population growth – as the massively exploited peasants lost all incentives to produce as had happened after Soviet collectivization.  Capital and industrial growth was absorbed by high levels of defense and internal security expenditure as insecurity born of isolation and simultaneous conflict with both the United States and the Soviet Union became acute.

The socialist development strategy was launched under conditions of international isolation.  It was partly due to the containment strategy that the U.S. initiated against China after the Korean was began in 1950.  But much of it was the Choice of Mao, who championed a policy of extreme self reliance.  In the first decade massive Soviet financial and technical aid to an extent neutralized the cost of isolation.  But once the Soviet ideological differences and the launch of huge ultra left movements, isolation became extremely expensive.  China was cut off from technological and capital flows that were crucial for growth but were seen as “imperialist” tools to be shunned.

Mao himself had little understanding of economic and technical matters and he distrusted intellectuals.  His skills were in radical politics and military strategy.  At the grass roots development was carried out by cadres who had little or no education or technical skill needed for modernization.  Before the 1978 reforms, only 4 percent of the Communist Party members were college graduates and only 6 percent of the 8,10,000 officials in the government and party organizations had college education.  Schools and colleges barely functioned between 1958 and 1978 when entry tests for admission to colleges were re-introduced.  Over 4,00,000 intellectuals were persecuted under the anti-Rightist campaign of 1957 and the cultural revolution and their status and minimum rights were not restored until the Party officially apologized to them in 1979.

Despite the the upheavals, China recorded an average 6 percent growth – 4 per cent in the 1958-77 phase – in the three decades of the socialist era largely because of high levels of capital accumulation and industrial investments that were geared to serve national security Capital formation rose from about 5 per cent of the gross national product in the immediate post – 1949 years to around 20 per cent quickly and then to over 30 per cent at which level it hovered for decades.  But consumption was suppressed and this led to generalized poverty.  Dislocation of investment climate, education and science, a negative productivity growth, huge wastage and a return to near civil war conditions and external conflicts were the fallout of Maoism.  The Party and governance were in disarray and the army head to be called into restore order and control the warning Maoist Red Guards and Party factions. Millions died in three decades of persecutions and in history’s worst famine brought about by the Great Leap Forward.  Political consensus, leadership unity and stability, once the high points of the revolution, had collapsed by the time Mao passed away in 1976.  The revolution too had died.

161.          The “Common thing” about both the revolutions in China is

a.       They helped to celebrate China’s fiftieth anniversary.

b.      The revolutions transformed China into a developing country

c.       Socialistic approach is seen in both revolutions

d.      Both the revolutions were led by Communist party.

162.          The purpose of the celebration was

a.       To commemorate the first revolution under the leadership of Mao

b.      Complete of 50 years of founding of the ‘Second republic’

c.       Communist party’s success in leading China

d.      Express joys of the people whose lives improved dramatically after 50 years of finding the republic.

163.          “Mixed-feelings” of Chinese are due to

a.       China still remaining a developing country

b.      Extreme persecution and destruction of countless lives in revolution

c.       Having good income, health, housing etc. and at the same time lack of popularly sustainable law-governed free and stable political system.

d.      Communist party leading China

164.          The most potent causes of sufferings of people of China are

a.       Revolution in 1911

b.      The defeat of Kuomintang in Civil war

c.       China following a capitalistic approach after first revolution

d.      The creation of a kind of authoritarian state to bring order and stability in immediate post revolutionary period.

165.          The reasons for which Mao became restive are

a.       The promise that CPC will provide political stability, national unity, economic , welfare, democratization and achievement of greater power status.

b.      Desire for socialism and simultaneous industrial catch-up with West

c.       Land was given to tillers and basis laid for rapid rural growth

d.      All the above

166.          Average agricultural growth fell to 2% - lower than its (China’s) population growth due to

a.       Massive exploitation by peasants

b.      Capital and industrial growth was absorbed by high levels of defence and other sources

c.       Due to isolation and simultaneous conflict with both United states and Soviet Union

d.      All of the above

167.          The main reason(s) for socialist development strategy was/were

a.       To create an extremely self reliant state

b.      Containment strategy adopted by the U.S.

c.       Due to Sino-Soviet ideological differences.

d.      Massive Soviet financial and technical aid firs decade

168.          Of the following factors basically responsible for the failure of Mao’s development strategy, identify the factor which appears to have positive nature.

a.       Mao had little understanding on economic and technical matters.

b.      Mao distrusted intellectuals

c.       Mao had good skills in radical politics and military strategy

d.      At grass root levels, the developmental work was carried out by cadres not having any education.

169.          The good performance on factors like average growth, capital formation in Mao’s (1958-77) were due to

a.       Mao’s good skills on radical politics and military strategy

b.      Massive Soviet financial and technical aid in the first decade of China

c.       Promise to provide political stability, national unity and achievement of a great power status.

d.      High levels of capital accumulation and industrial investments that were geared to serve national security.

170.          The apt name that can be given to the passage is

a.       China and its revolutions

b.      China at fifty

c.       Socialistic and Capitalistic governance in China

d.      Democracy and China

Answer the questions 171-180 based on the passage – 3

PASSAGE – 3

The explosive growth of the internet promises a new age of perfectly competitive markets. With perfect information about prices and products at finger tips, consumers can quickly and easily find the best deals.  In this brave new world, retailers profit margins will be completed away, as they are all forced to price at cost.

Or so we we are led to believe.  And yes, studies do show that on-line retailers tend to be cheaper than conventional rivals and that they adjust prices more finely and more often.  But they also find that price dispersion (the spread between the highest and lowest prices) is often as wide on the Internet as it is in the shopping mall – or even wider.  Moreover, the retailers with the keenest prices rarely have the biggest sales.

Such price dispersion is usually a sign of market inefficiency.  In an ideal competitive market, where products are identical, customers are perfectly informed, there is free market entry, a large number of buyers and sellers and no search costs, all sales are made by the retailer with the lowest price.

So all prices are driven down to marginal cost.  Search  cost on the Internet might be expected to be lower and on-line consumers to be more easily informed about prices. So price dispersion on-line ought to be narrower than in conventional markets.  But it does not seem to be.

A recent paper, by Michael Smith and Erik Brynojolfasson of Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan School of Management and Joseph Bailey of the University of Maryland, looks at the main research on this topic.  One study it cities, by Mr. Bailey, finds that price dispersion for books, CDS and software is no smaller on-line  than it is in conventional markets.  Another, by Messrs Brynjolfson and Smith, finds that prices for identical books and CDS at different on-line retailers differ by as much as 50 per cent for CDS.  A third, by Eric Clemomns, II-Horns Hann and Lorin Hitt of the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, finds that prices for airline tickets for on-line travel agents differ by an average of 28 per cent.

There are many possible reasons for this price dispersion.  One is that the studies are not comparing like with like.  Not so.  Even after controlling for differing arrival and departure times or connection, the study of on-line travel agents finds that prices for airline tickets vary by an average of 18 percent.  The study of books and CDS deliberately focuses on physically identical products.  Indeed, it finds that pricier retailers offer service terms, such as flexible returns rules, that are no better and sometimes worse – than cheaper ones.

Convenience could also explain the price dispersion.  Some websites offer better search tool, product reviews and samples, such as book chapters and audio clips.  But in  a frictionless market, consumers could use these services to choose what they want to buy and then buy from the cheapest site.  So such services would explain price dispersion only if there were significant search of switching costs on-line.

For all the talk about the Internet eliminating search costs, a prominent site may be as important to on-line retailers as it is to conventional ones.  Why else to web retailers spend a fortune advertising their web addresses on internet portals, such as yahoo! As well as in the  conventional media?  Search engines are not always much of use: Yahoo! Book retailer section lists 6,219 sites.

Searching  for one-line bookstores at Altavista returns 5,173,884 possibly relevant web pages.  So, rather than rooting out the cheapest deal, most consumers go directly to Amazon.com or CDnow, even though, the research shows, they charge seven to twelve percent more on average than such lesser known retailers as Books.com and CD Universe.

Switching between on-line retailers can also be costly.  Many sites have loyalty programmes.  Moreover, once consumers are familiar with a site, they may be reluctant to try another, especially when their usual site is customized to suit them, for instance through one click shopping.

Search and switching costs are clearly important.  But perhaps the biggest reason for price dispersion is that consumers are willing to pay a premium to shop at sites that they trust.  According to the paper, even people who use ‘shopbots’ or computer programmes that search many websites for the best deal, usually buy from the market leader even if it is not quoting the lowest price.  A trusted brand may be more important on the internet than on the high street, since on-line consumers pay upfront and cannot be sure whether or when their purchases will be delivered.

To be fair, the Internet is still in its infancy.  The degree of price dispersion may fall as consumers become cannier.  But it is a good bet that retailers will come up with new wheezes too, and that those with strong brands will retain their pricing power.  Perfect competition is some way off.

171.          According to the passage, the retailers are forced to price at costs due to

a.       Explosive growth of Internet

b.      Creation of perfectly competitive markets

c.       Availability of information about prices and products on-line helps consumers in making effective decisions

d.      Market inefficiency created by price dispersion.

172.          The “price dispersion factor” is high in

a.       Inefficient markets

b.      Internet markets

c.       Conventional markets

d.      Consumer markets

173.          The “Search Costs” are expected to be low in Internet marketing due to

a.       Ideal competitive market conditions

b.      Products are identical

c.       Free market entry

d.      The reason that consumers can be easily informed about prices on-line.

174.          The following schools are effectively involved in research on price dispersions.

a.       Solan School of Management

b.      Wharton School

c.       University of Maryland

d.      All of the above

175.          The following factor is not referred by author in explaining the price dispersion phenomenon.

a.       Comparing the dispersion of like products

b.      Convenience

c.       Switching cost

d.      Perfect competition

176.          The following is very important for both Internet and Conventional retailers

a.       A well known and prominent site

b.      Frictionless market

c.       Product reviews and samples

d.      Providing better search tools

177.          The author feels that factors like trusted brand and customized shopping will

a.       Allow more number of players to enter into market

b.      Allow customers to search for huge number of websites for better deals

c.       Allow retailers to charge more on the products on internet

d.      Allow web marketers to create better kind of products.

178.          The customer tend to go for trusted branded name on the internet because

a.       Products are of good quality.

b.      Consumers pay upfront and don’t have clear idea as to when delivery will be made

c.       Search costs are less

d.      Switching costs are low

179.          The most important fact for price dispersion is

a.       Customers are willing to pay high premium for trusted names

b.      Customers prefer less searching as search engines bring more number of websites.

c.       Customers prefer to switch based on the low price quotations.

d.      Customers have all the information about products on-line

180.          One of the following is not a conclusion drawn by the author.

a.       Marketing on Internet is still in its infancy state

b.      Marketing on Internet is of perfect competitive type

c.       Marketing on Internet in the long run helps in reducing the price dispersion, a consumers tend to become cannier

d.      Marketing on Internet helps retailers to come up with strong brands that will retain pricing power.


 

KEY to Practice Test IX

 

1. b

2. a

3. c

4. a

5. b

6. d

7. a

8. a

9.d

10. c

11. d

12. d

13. d

14. a

15. a

16. d

17. b

18. b

19. c

20. b

21. d

22. a

23. a

24. d

25. b

26. c

27. c

28. b

29. b

30. d

31. d

32. d

33. d

34. a

35. c

36. a

37. d

38. b

39. c

40. b

41. d

42. a

43. d

44. b

45. b

46. c

47. b

48. d

49. d

50. b

51. d

52. a

53. d

54. d

55. b

56. c

57. c

58. a

59. d

60. a

61. c

62. a

63. d

64. d

65. a

66. d

67. d

68. c

69. a

70. d

71. d

72. b

73. c

74. c

75. c

76. c

77. c

78. c

79. b

80. d

81. b

82. b

83. c

84. b

85. b

86. d

87. a

88. d

89. c

90. d

91. b

92. a

93. b

94. c

95. b

96. d

97. c

98. d

99. d

100.a

101. d

102. b

103. b

104. b

105. b

106. c

107. b

108. d

109. c

110. b

111. a

112. b

113. c

114. a

115. a

116. b

117. b

118. a

119. d

120. c

121. d

122. b

123. c

124. c

125. a

126. d

127. c

128. d

129. b

130. a

131. b

132. a

133. c

134. d

135. b

136. c

137. b

138. c

139. d

140. b

141. d

142. c

143. c

144. d

145. a

146. c

147. b

148. c

149. d

150. c

151. d

152. d

153. c

154. d

155. c

156. b

157. c

158. a

159. c

160. b

161. d

162. b

163. c

164. d

165. b

166. d

167. a

168. c

169. d

170. b

171. c

172. b

173.d

174. d

175. d

176. a

177. c

178.b

179. a

180. b