IBSAT

Practice Test – 3

Quantitative Ability

 


 

 

1.                  1 Unit each of A and B are used to produce 1 unit of C.  A dealer deals in all the three.  The costs of A and B are Rs.500 and Rs.1000 per unit respectively.  His profit margins are 2% and 1% on A and B respectively.  But if he combines them and sells them as C, he makes Rs.10 more than by selling A and B separately.  The profit margin on C is

a.       2%

b.      3%

c.       4%

d.      2.5%

 

 

2.                  1.5 +  ______1_______ = ?

                      1.5 + _____1____

                               1.5 + ___1_

                                        1.5 + …

a.       Indeterminate

b.      1.75

c.       2

d.      2.5

3.                  In a leap year, the second 6 months of the year have ______ day(s) more than the first 6 months of the year.

a.       1

b.      2

c.       3

d.      4

4.                  If f(x) = x for all x, g(x) = -f(x) for – ω < x < 0, g(x) = f(x) for 0 ≤ x < ω, then g(x) cannot be

a.       0

b.      -1

c.       1

d.      27 / 29

5.                  The tap at the bottom of a large vessel with 10 litres of water is running constantly, draining the contents at the rate of ¾ litres/min.  If an inlet pours into the vessel 5.25 litres of water at the end of every 7 minutes, in due course of time.

a.       The vessel will be empty

b.      Water will overflow

c.       The water level will never fall

d.      Can’t say

6.                  A and B start from point P and run in opposite directions along the circumference of a circle.  Their speeds are in the ratio of 2:1.  If A covered 800 m along the circumference before meeting B for the first time, the circumference of the circle is

a.       1000 m

b.      1600 m

c.       1200 m

d.      1500 m

7.                  If a # b = a2 – ab and a @ b = a2 + ab, then [(3 # 2) @ (3 @ 2)]=

a.       54

b.      -36

c.       170

d.      15

8.                  If a : b :: b : c :: c : a = ∞; then

a.      

b.     

c.       α

d.     

9.                  If I can buy 3 bananas for Rs.2 and 2 oranges for Rs.3, what is the maximum number of fruits I can buy for Rs.7 if there should be atleast 2 numbers of each type of fruit?

a.       6

b.      10

c.       9

d.      8

10.              The sum of 12 numbers is 78.  The average of the first 3 numbers is 2, the average of the next 4 numbers is 5.5 and the average of the remaining 5 numbers is 10.  The average of 12 numbers taken together is

a.       5

b.      6

c.       6.5

d.      7

11.              If there are 3 men with their sons, 6 men with their fathers, and 4 men with their grandfathers present at a family ceremony, how many men are there, if no father has less than 2 sons?

a.       13

b.      6

c.       7

d.      9

12.              There is a small metallic ball on top of a sphere of radius R.  If the ball slips and falls off the sphere, the total distance traveled by the ball by the time it hits the ground is

a.       πR

b.      R (1 + π /2)

c.       2R

d.      R (1+π)

13.              A pack of 52 cards is distributed equally among A, B, C and D.  All of A’s cards are black in color.  B has 7 black and 6 red cards.  C has 4 black cards more than D and 4 red cards less than D.  D’s cards are

a.       1 black, 8 red

b.      1 black, 11 red

c.       1 black, 12 red

d.      2 black, 8 red

14.              There are some coins of value 10 ps, 25 ps and 50 ps in the ratio 1:2:3 in a bag.  If the total value of the cash in the bag is Rs.4.20, then the total number of coins in the bag is

a.       10

b.      11

c.       12

d.      13

15.              Two trains cross each other in time T when they are traveling in opposite direction.  The faster train completely overtakes the slower train in time t.  If the trains are equal length, then how long will the faster train take to completely overtake the second train, when the second one is in rest?

a.      

b.     

c.       T + t

d.     

16.              There are 2 identical vessels X and Y, Y is filled with water to the brim and X is empty.  There are 2 pails A and B, such that B can hold half as much water as A can hold.  One operation is said to be executed when water is transferred from Y to X using A and Y is replenished with water from X using B.  If A can hold ½ litre of water and it takes 40 operations to equate the water levels in X and Y, what is the volume of water in the system?

a.       10 litres

b.      20 litres

c.       40 litres

d.      20 ¾ litres

17.              Two runners A and B take x and y minutes respectively to run once round a circular track.  They start at point P and run in the same direction, till they met again at P.  How many rounds did A run, if x and y are prime numbers such that x < y?

a.       x

b.      y

c.       (x+y)/x

d.      (x+y)/y

18.              Each boy of a class is a member of atleast one of the clubs A, B and C.  The individual memberships of the clubs are 12, 11 and 10 respectively.  Any 2 of the 3 clubs have 5 common members.  There are 3 members that belong to all 3 clubs.  How many students are there in the class?

a.       33

b.      15

c.       18

d.      21

19.              The batting line-up of a cricket team is A, D, E, C, B.  If the score at a particular time is 125 runs for 3 wickets, which of the following is not necessarily true?

a.       Either A or D is out

b.      2 out of A, D and E are out

c.       C has to be one of the two batting

d.      The maximum number of possible pairs at the crease is 4

20.              In an open top plastic crate with outside dimensions as length 100 cm., width 30 cm., height 100 cm. and a uniform thickness of 1 cm., what is the maximum number of milk packets of a thickness of 7 cm., that can fit in if the crate is to be kept closed by a planar top plate?  The packets are square in shape with a side of 14 cm.

a.       196

b.      98

c.       136

d.      176

Directions:  Question No. 21-25, refer to the data below:

Mr. X deposited a certain sum of money in a bank in 1986.  The bank calculated interest on the balance in the account at 10% simple interest, and credited it to the account once a year.  At the end of the first year X withdrew the entire interest and 20% of the initial amount.  Again at the end of the second year, he withdrew the interest and 50% of the remaining amount.  At the end of the third year, he withdrew the interest and 50% of the remaining amount.  Finally at the end of the fourth year, X closed the account and collected the entire balance of Rs.11,000.

21.              The initial amount in rupees, deposited by X was

a.       Rs.25,000

b.      Rs.75,000

c.       Rs.50,000

d.      None of the above

22.              The total interest collected by X was

a.       Rs.12,000

b.      Rs.20,000

c.       Rs.4,000

d.      Rs.11,000

23.              The year at end of which X withdrew the maximum amount was

a.       First

b.      Second

c.       Third

d.      Fourth

24.              The year, at the end of which X collected the maximum interest was

a.       First

b.      Second

c.       Third

d.      Fourth

25.              The year at the end of which X withdrew the smallest amount was

a.       First

b.      Second

c.       Third

d.      Fourth

 

Directions:  For Question No. 26-29, refer to the data below:

Given below is the scoring pattern of students of five schools – A, B, C, D, E.  The first column of data gives the number of students who scored 80% and above.  The second column gives the percentage of the total number of students (of each school) who scored less than 80%

School

I

II

A

B

C

D

E

1200

1140

1140

1200

1280

60

70

50

88

36

 

26.              How many students study in school A?

a.       1800

b.      2000

c.       3000

d.      1500

27.              What is the number of students in school E who scored less than 80%

a.       720

b.      640

c.       1840

d.      360

28.              The school with the largest number of students is

a.       B

b.      C

c.       D

d.      E

29.              The school with the smallest number of students is

a.       B

b.      C

c.       D

d.      E         

30.              What rate percent does Shanker get from his money when in discounting a bill due 10 months hence, he deducts 4% of the amount of the bill?

a.       5.00%

b.      4.75%

c.       4.25%

d.      4.00%

For Questions 31-34 refer to the following graph which shows the annual premium of an insurance company, charged for an insurance of Rs.1000 for different ages.

 

 

 

31.              The premium for a man aged 26 years for an insurance of Rs.1000 is

a.       Rs.46.50

b.      Rs.46.00

c.       Rs.45.75

d.      Rs.45.00

32.              What is the age of a person whose premium is Rs. 44.60 for an insurance of Rs.1000?

a.       22 years

b.      23 years

c.       24 years

d.      25 years

33.              How much percent of the premium is increased if a man aged 30 years is insured for Rs.1000, instead of a man aged 23 years?

a.       4.75%

b.      5.68%

c.       6.24%

d.      6.00%

34.              Two members of a family aged 20 years and 25 years are to be insured for Rs.10000 each.  The total annual premium to be paid by them is

a.       Rs.836.75

b.      Rs.845.50

c.       Rs.870.60

d.      Rs.885.00

For Question No. 35-64 choose the best alternative.

35.              A and B are playing a number game.  Each player, in turn, has to pick a number x such that 1 < x < n.  When the sum of all numbers so picked exceeds or equals (2n + 1), the one who picked the last number loses.  If A were to start, what should he choose to make B lose eventually?

a.       2

b.      n-1

c.       n/2

d.      n

36.              A cigarette pack contains 10 cigarettes arranged in two rows of 5 each.  If the cigarettes are 83 mm in length and 2 mm in radius, the minimum dimensions (length, width, height) of the case with a uniform thickness of 1 mm are (in mm)

a.       22, 10, 83

b.      23, 11, 84

c.       20, 8, 83

d.      22, 10, 85

37.              A and B together can complete a job in p days, B and C together in q days, and C and A together in r days.  If p < r < q, then the three workers in ascending order of efficiency are

a.       A, B, C

b.      B,C, A

c.       A, C, B

d.      C, B, A

38.              If every 2 out of 3 ready-made shirts need a readjustment in the collar, every 3 out of 4 need a readjustment in the sleeves, and every 4 out of 5 need a readjustment in the body, how many readjustments will be required for 60 shirts?

a.       123

b.      133

c.       143

d.      24

39.              Club A has 9 members and club B has 14 members.  3 members are common to both clubs.  How many members belong exclusively to either one of the clubs?

a.       20

b.      17

c.       11

d.      6

40.              A two-digit number is such that the difference between the number and the one formed by interchanging the digits is equal to the product of 6 and 9.  What is the number?

a.       82

b.      72

c.       45

d.      54

41.              A bag contains 4 red balls, 5 blue balls and 6 white balls.  If two balls are picked out of the bag simultaneously, then what is the probability that both balls are blue?

a.       25/225

b.      2/21

c.       1/3

d.      2/7

42.              I have two options for a loan of Rs.1000.

                                                               i.      Repay the principal at the end of 5 years and pay interest at the rate of 7% p.a.

                                                             ii.      Repay the principal in 5 equal annual installments and pay interest at the rate of 10% on the outstanding principal each time.

Which one results in less cash outflow for me?

a.       I

b.      II

c.       Same in both options

d.      Cannot be determined

43.              In the year 1981, there were two sellers.  A and B of product Q, with market shares of 60% and 40% respectively.  In the year 1982, the market for the product expanded by 20%.  The share of B has

a.       Increased by 3%

b.      Decreased by 3%

c.       Decreased by 55%

d.      Remained unchanged

44.              A, B and C are decimal numbers of the type 12.1, 13.7 and 14.0 etc.  MOD (x) = x truncated to the nearest integer less than or equal to x.

If p = MOD (A + B + C) and q = MOD(A) + MOD (B) + MOD (C), then the maximum value of that p – q can attain is

a.       0

b.      1

c.       2

d.      3

45.              A long stick is cut into three parts in the ratio 1:2:4.  If you form a triangle using the three smaller pieces, then

a.       The angles of the triangle are in the ratio 1:2:4

b.      The perpendiculars from the vertices to the bases are in the ratio 1:2:4

c.       The sides of the triangle formed by joining the mid-points are in the ratio 1:2:4

d.      It is not possible to make a triangle.

46.              If there are 6 different ways in which one can solve the equation x2 + x + 1 = 43, then the fourth type of solution would yield one value of x as

a.       5

b.      6

c.       7

d.      5.5

47.              There are 4 red balls and 2 blue balls in one bag and 3 red and 8 blue balls in another.  If m blue balls are added to the first and n red balls to the second such that the ratio of the number of balls to the number of red to blue balls in both the bags is the same, then n:m could be

a.       3:1

b.      2:5

c.       5:2

d.      1:3

48.              A pack of 52 cards is distributed equally amongst 4 players.  The one to receive the set with the lowest sum wins (A=1, J=11, Q=12, K=13).  What is the least total with which one can win?

a.       40

b.      31

c.       28

d.      24

49.              There are ten members in a club.  The club donates a fixed amount of money to charitable purposes irrespective of the number of members.  If there had been five more members, it would have cost Rs.1000 less per head.  What is the amount of the total donation?

a.       Rs.3000

b.      Rs.30000

c.       Rs.2000

d.      Rs.20000

50.              Four spheres of different radii each broke into two hemispheres.  What is the maximum number of trials required to put together all the corresponding hemispheres?

a.       45

b.      36

c.       16

d.      9

51.              a,b,c are positive integers.  If c – a < a, a – b < b and b – c> c then a > 4c is

a.       Always true

b.      False

c.       Not always true

d.      True only if b < 3c

52.              The sum of four successive prime numbers can never be less than

a.       17

b.      26

c.       15

d.      11

53.              If the positive square roots of a,b,c (a < b < c) are consecutive integers, then the inequality c – b > b – a is

a.       Always true

b.      False

c.       Not always true

d.      True only if a,b,c are perfect squares

54.              A dealer gives 90 paise in change for every 1 rupee.  What is the profit margin of the dealer?

a.       10%

b.      10.1/9%

c.       11%

d.      11 1/9%

55.              After 3 years, Ram will be twice as old as Shyam now is and Shyam will be as old as Ram now is.  Their ages after 1 year will be

a.       9,7

b.      10,7

c.       9,6

d.      10,6

56.              What is the sum of the first twenty even natural numbers?

a.       210

b.      420

c.       360

d.      332

57.              What is the probability that a given date in a month of 31 days is a Monday, Tuesday or a Wednesday, if the month started on a Monday?

a.       ½

b.      3/7

c.       15/31

d.      14/31

58.              If f(x,y) = (x+y) (1/x+1/y) and x > 0, y > 0, then f(x,y) is

a.       ≥2

b.      ≤3

c.       ≤5

d.      ≥4

59.              What is the product of the roots of the equation x2 – 2x – 48 = 0?

a.       48

b.      24

c.       -48

d.      -24

60.              What values of y satisfy ly – 41 < 10?

a.       -6 < y < 6

b.      y > 6

c.       y < 14

d.      -6 < y < 14

61.              1 unit each of A and B are used to produce 1 unit of C.  The costs of A and B are Rs.500 and Rs.1000 per unit respectively.  The dealer’s profit margins are 2% and 1% on A and B respectively.  If he combines them and sells them as C, he makes Rs. 10 more than the amount he would make by selling A and B separately.  The profit margin on C is

a.       2%

b.      3%

c.       4%

d.      2.5%

62.              A vessel containing 10 litres of water has a tap at the bottom that is running constantly, draining, the contents at the rate of ¾ litres per minute.  An inlet pours 5.25 litres of water into the vessel at the end of every 7 minutes.  At the end of 70 minutes.

a.       The vessel will be empty

b.      The vessel will have 10 litres of water

c.       The vessel will have 5 litres of water

d.      The vessel will have 7 litres of water.

63.              It is observed that there are exactly two pieces in each row and in each column of a chess board.  How many pieces are there on the board?

a.       16

b.      12

c.       24

d.      32

64.              m and n are positive integers. N = 1.  If (mn – 1) is divided by n, then the remainder is

a.       Always 1

b.      Always n – 1

c.       Always m – 1

d.      Always m + n - 1

Directions:  For Question No. 65-84, choose the best alternative.

65.              56.565656….. could also be expressed as

a.       56 / 99

b.      56 56/99

c.       56 44/99

d.      56 5/9

66.              A and B run in opposite directions from point P on the circumference of a circle with different speeds.  A runs in clock-wise direction and meets B for the first time after running 700 m.  A meets B, for the second time, at a distance of 300 m. from P in the clock-wise direction.  The circumference of the circle, if only one of them has crossed P once, is

a.       900 m

b.      1600 m

c.       1000 m

d.      1100 m

67.              If the profit margins on two articles A and B costing the same to make are 5% and 10% respectively, the ratio in which the items would be sold to realize the same amount of profit from both the articles is

a.       1:2

b.      1.05:1.10

c.       2:1

d.      3:2

68.              A couple visited 5 tourist spots and in each spot they took some photographs such that the number of photographs in a spot is one more than the number of photographs in the previous spot.  If they took a total of 75 photographs, how many did they take in the first tourist spot?

a.       1

b.      15

c.       13

d.      14

69.              A milkman buys milk of 80% purity.  He then dilutes it further by adding water.  If he added a litre of water to 4 litres of milk bought @Rs.12 per liter, his profit assuming he sells all @Rs.12 per liter and dilution doesn’t cost him anything is

a.       15%

b.      255

c.       20%

d.      16 2/3 %

70.              In certain year, there were 9 members in club A and 12 members in club B and 3 members were common to both.  In the following year, the number of common members rose by 2.  If there have been no new members to either club, the difference between the number of members of club A and B now, is

a.       1

b.      3

c.       5

d.      4

71.              A liter of milk sold by a milkman, contains milk and water in the ratio 4:1.  A house wife adds 200 ml. of water, and then uses 200 ml of the mixture to make curds.  How much of pure milk is she left with?

a.       800 ml

b.      1 liter

c.       667 ml

d.      333 ml.

72.              1 man day represents 24 hours of work.  It takes 5 man-days for A to compete a task.  He works 8 hours a day and 5 days in a week (excluding Saturday and Sundays).  If he starts the work on the 1st of a month which is a Monday, the earliest date by which he can complete the task is

a.       18th

b.      19th

c.       21st

d.      15th

73.              A girl wished to purchase  m roses for n rupee(s). (m and n are integers).  The shopkeeper, offered, to give the remaining 10 flowers also if she paid him a total of Rs.2.  This would have resulted in a saving of 80 paise per dozen.  How many flowers did she wish to buy initially?

a.       4

b.      5

c.       6

d.      7

74.              Buyer buys an article from the Retailer.  The Retailer buys these from Wholesaler.  Wholesaler buys these from Manufacturer.  A buyer bought the article at Rs.115.  On the article, if the Retailer, wholesaler and Manufacturer have made Rs. 4, Rs. 5 and Rs. 6 profit respectively, what does it cost to manufacture the article?

a.       Rs.106

b.      Rs.100

c.       Rs.105

d.      Rs.104

75.              Gopal wishes to buy a television set with the money in the bank which is currently earning an interest @ 15% p.a. compounded annually.  But Nair, his friend, claims that the inflation rate applicable to TV sets is going to be 14%, 15% and 16% respectively for the next 3 years and advises Gopal to postpone the purchase by 3 years.  Does Gopal gain monetarily, if he takes Nair’s tip?

a.       Yes

b.      No

c.       No profit or loss

d.      He gains only if the purchase is made in the second year.

76.              In a cinema theater, there are 50 seats in the Box, 100 seats in Balcony, 200 seats in Dress Circle and 300 seats in Stalls.  The tickets are priced at Rs. 30, Rs.20 Rs. 12 and Rs.8 respectively.  The owner is contemplating a fare-hike and the alternatives are:

I.                    Increase by Rs.2, the rate for Box and Dress Circle only.

II.                 Increase by Re.1, the rates for Balcony and Stalls only.

III.               Increase by Rs.2, the rate for Stalls alone.

Which of the above results in maximum revenue for the owner, assuming that all tickets are sold?

a.       Only I

b.      Only II

c.       Only III

d.      Either I or III above

77.              There is a letter in each of the cells of 4 x 4 cell-structure.  If the letter – structure above either of the diagonals is the same as the one below, the number of different letters is

a.       4

b.      6

c.       8

d.      16

78.              If 3 men and 3 women can complete a job in 18 days, how many days will 5 men and 4 women take to complete the same job, assuming that men and women work at the same rate?

a.       15 days

b.      12 days

c.       27 days

d.      9 days

79.              3 clubs P, Q, R have identical membership profiles.  The number of people who are exclusively members of one club is the same as that of any other.  The number of common members between any two clubs is the same as that between any other 2 clubs.  10% of the members belong to all 3 clubs.  30% of the members belong to only one of the three clubs.  What % of member’s belong to atleast 2 clubs?

a.       50%

b.      60%

c.       70%

d.      90%

80.              Sum of 2n terms of the series 6 – 8 + 6 – 8 + 6 – 8 + … is

a.       -2n2

b.      –(m+2)

c.       -2n

d.      6n – 8

81.              Which of the following is not a Pythagorean triangle?

a.       3,4,5

b.      6,8,10

c.       15,20,25

d.      13,14,15

82.              If all numbers divisible by 3 are deleted from the natural sequence of numbers between 25 and 100 (both included), how many would remain?

a.       51

b.      50

c.       52

d.      49

83.              ‘a’ and ‘b’ are natural numbers such that b – a = 10.  what is the maximum number of prime numbers counting from a to b?

a.       3

b.      4

c.       5

d.      6

84.              If xy = 10y + x2, then (x,y) could be

a.       (6,2)

b.      (5,4)

c.       (2,6)

d.      (3,2)

 


 

 

Data Adequacy


 

Directions:  Each of the following problems has a question and two statements which are labeled (1) and (II).  Use the data given in (I) and (II) go together with other available information (such as the number of hours in a day, the definition of clock wise, mathematical facts, etc.) to decide whether the statements are sufficient to answer the question.  Then mark the answer as

a.       If statement (I) and alone is not sufficient.

b.      If statement (II) alone is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient

c.       If both the statements (I) and (II) together are sufficient, but neither statement alone is sufficient

d.      If statement (I) and (II) together are not sufficient.

All number used in this section are real numbers.  A figure given for a problem in intended to provide information consistent with that in the question, but not necessarily with the additional information contained in the statement.

85.              The principal amount of a loan is Rs.1000.  The rate of interest is 12% p.a.  The period of loan is 2 years.  What is the interest amount at the end of 2 years?

I.                    The principal and interest are paid together.

II.                 The principal is repaid in lumpsum at the end of 2 years and the interest is compounded annually.

86.              What is the distance between A and B?

I.                    A and B are two points on the semi-circle with center at the point O

II.                 The angle AOB is 60°

87.              What is the probability of A losing the bet?

I.                    The probability of throwing heads using a special coin is 2/3

II.                 A has bet on the event that the first 3 throws of a coin will turn heads

88.              How many brothers does Lata have?

I.                    Rahul has two sisters and no brothers

II.                 Reema, a sister of Rahul has only one sister, Lata

89.              How many more days will A take to complete the given task:

I.                    A has completed 30% of the work in 12 days

II.                 A will continue to work at the same uniform pace at which he had been working so far

90.              What is |x – y|?

I.                    x + y = 7

II.                 xy = 10

91.              In how many days can A do the job?

I.                    A and B together would work at twice the pace at which A can work and complete it in 10 days

II.                 B alone can complete the job in 20 days.

92.              How many products does stockist A stock more than stockist B?

I.                    Stockist C stocks as many products as B does.

II.                 A stocks twice as many as C does

93.              The sum of three numbers is 12.  What is their products?

I.                    The largest is 2 more than the average of the three numbers

II.                 The difference between the largest and the smallest is equal to the average of the average of thre three numbers

94.              Are the 2 triangles congruent?

I.                    The 2 triangles have 2 sides equal.

II.                 One of the base angles is the same

95.              When will A and B meet?

I.                    A and B are both running around a circle starting from the same point P at the same time.

II.                 The radius of the circle is 10m and their speeds are 2m/s and 1 m/s respectively.

96.              What is the area of the quadrilateral PQRS?

I.                    The area of a quadrilateral is 1/2d (p1+ p2) where d is either of the diagonals and p1 and p2 are perpendiculars to d from the opposite vertices.

II.                 PQRS are points on a sqauare ABCD of side 4 cm, such that every point divides one side of the square in the same ratio 1:2

97.              The composition of the Board of a company is a follows: A chairman and 3 representatives from each of the 2 divisions of the company.

Are all the members present at the meeting?

I.                    The 2 divisions are represented equally

II.                 The number of members is more than 6

98.              Which covers a larger area, the rectangle or the squares?

I.                    The width of the rectangle is equal; to the side of the square

II.                 The length of the rectangle is more than the side of the square.

99.              Is the given solid object in the shape of a sphere:

I.                    Every point on the surface is at a distance ‘r’ from the same point O.

II.                 The volume of the object is directly proportional to r3

 

Analytical Reasoning

 

DIRECTIONS: For Question No. 100- 104, arrange the sentences A,B,C and D in a logical sequence between the sentences (1) and (6) so as to make logical sense.

100.          

1)               Ethiopians, who believe that they are God’s chosen people, have a special creation legend to justify their confidence.

A.        According to the legend, God moulded the first men from clay.

B          He took the second burnt and black, so he threw them away to the south of Africa.

C         He took the second batch out too soon and they were pasty and white, so he threw them away to the North, where they became Arabs and Europeans.

D         He put the first batch in the oven to bake but left them too long.

E          The third batch came out just right and he put them in Ethiopia

a.         ADBC

b.         DCBA

c.         BACD

s.          CBDA

101.

            1)   According to Greek myth, Pandora was the first woman.

            A   Only hope was left

            B    She was sent to the rebellious Titans on earth by Zeus as a punishment for mankind.

            C   She was given a box to take with her, with instructions not to open it.

            D.  Because she was curious, she disobeyed, opened the box and all the evils of the world flew out.

6)         Pandora’s box has since become a symbol for any action whose consequences are dangerously unpredictable.

            a.   DCBA

            b.   ABCD

            c.   BCDA

            d.   CADB

102

I)                   Chichen Itza, last outpost of Mayan civilization, was built in the heart of the arid Yucatan peninsula, unlike most of the earlier Mayan cities, which were built in rain forests.

A   If she survived in the dark water until midday, priests hauled her out to ask what the God’s had told her.

B.   In times of crisis a maiden was hurled at dawn into the 60 feet deep hole in the limestone rock.

C.  The city folks drank from one well and used the other as a well of sacrifice

D.  It got its water from two wells known as cenotes, fed by underwater streams.

6)   The Mayans also threw cherished possessions into the hole-carved jade, gold, nodules of resin used as incense, copper discs and human skeletons have all been dredged out of it

a.   DCBA

b.   DCAD

c.   CADB

d.   ABDC

103.

I)    There is often a secret language in the strange and exotic patterns of oriental carpets.

A   For example, the Chinese word for bat (fu) sounds identical to the word for happiness.

B    Some numbers are traditionallhy thought to be lucky, as are some colors.

C.  So a stylized bat is often depicted on carpets to represent happiness.

D.  The designs of Chinese rugs are particularly rich in meaning many of them derive from Chinese homonyms – words which sound alike but are written differently

6)   Thus five red bats on a carpet indicate the five forms of supreme happiness; health, wealth, longevity, a natural death and a life of virtue

a.   DACB

b.   CBAD

c.   BADC

d.   CADB

104.

1)   The largest display of any flowering plant is produced by a tree the tail pot palm, corypha umbraculifera, found in Sri Lanka and other tropical countries.

A.  After the display the palm bears upto 60 million fruits – each about 1 inch across.

B.   The fruits – which contain the seeds – take about a year to ripen

C.  But its blossoming if unforgettable: a spectacular branched head upto 20 feet tall and 30-42 feet across.

D.  The palm which lives for 40 to 70 years, flowers only once in its lifetime.

6.   Then after its reproduction is assured, the palm dies.

a.   DACB

b.   DCAB

c.   BDCA

d.   BCAD

Directions:  Question No. 105-109 contain six statements followed by four sets of combinations of three.  Choose the set in which the statements are logically related.

105

A.     All marionettes are graceful

B.     All marionettes are bright

C.     All those who are thin are graceful

D.     None who are not graceful are thin

E.      All marionettes are thin

F.      All who are graceful are bright

a.       BFD

b.      AFB

c.       EBC

d.      EAF

106

A.     Ram is a graduate

B.     All graduates are taxed heavily

C.     Some graduates are not taxed heavily

D.     Some of those who are taxed are graduates

E.      Ram is not a graduate

F.      Ram is taxed heavily

a    DEF

b.   ABF

c.   CFE

d.   ACF

107

A.     No Axis is a Queen

B.     Some Axis are not Rhymes

C.     Some Queens are Rhymes

D.     No Queen is a rhyme

E.      Some Queens are Axis

F.      All Axis are not Rhymes

a.       BCE

b.      BDE

c.       ADF

d.      ABE

108.

A.     Radhesh cannot say he lies.

B.     All those who can say they lie need not be lying

C.     Only liars can say they lie

D.     Radhesh can say he lies

E.      No liar can say he lies

F.      Radhesh is a liar

a.       ADF

b.      BCE

c.       CDE

d.      CDF

 

109

A.     Some managers are efficient.

B.     Some efficient people are well paid

C.     All efficient people are well paid

D.     Some efficient people are managers

E.      Some well paid people are efficient

F.      Some managers are well paid

a.   BDF

b.   ACF

c.   DEF

d.   ADF

Directions :  For Question No. 110 – 114 choose the best alternative

110.    “All Utopians are liars.  I am a Utopian” Therefore I am

a.       Telling the truth

b.      Lying

c.       Partly truthful

d.      Cannot be decided

111.    All cats are gray.  All gods are brown.  Some dogs hate all cats.  Both cats and dogs are animals.  Therefore,

a.       All brown animals hate all gray animals

b.      Some brown animals hate all gray animals

c.       Some brown animals hate some gray animals

d.      No conclusion is possible.

112.    Both Antonio and Shylock undergo a lie detector test.  Antonio says that he has paid Shylock; the lie-detector test agrees.  Shylock says that he has not been paid by Antonio; the test shows otherwise.  Lie detectors tests are completely accurate when the person is lying; but sometimes when the person is truthful.  Therefore, we can conclude that

a.       Antonio has paid the money to Shylock

b.      Antonio has not paid the money to Shylock

c.       Antonio has paid the money but Shylock has not received it

d.      Cannot be decided.

113.    All MBA’s are executives.  All executives are managers.  Some leaders are managers.  Therefore

a.       Only MBAs are leaders

b.      Only managers are leaders

c.       Only executives are leaders

d.      None of these

114.    The Commandant of a tourist space carrier has to decide among four planet resorts.  These are three tourist groups, with different requirements, Alpha type prefer sea beaches and need air; Beta type tourists prefer hills; and gamma type prefer forests and need sunshine.  Planet Blue has sea beaches, forests and air.  Planet Green has forests, hills and sea-beaches.  Planet Red has sunshine and air.  Planet Yellow has sunshine, forests and sea beaches.  The best alternative for the Commandant is

a.       Planet Blue

b.      Planet Green

c.       Planet Red

d.      Planet Yellow

Directions:  Question No. 115-120 contain six statements followed by four sets of combinations of three.  Choose the set in which the statements are logically related.

115.

A.           Married couples are often known to bicker.

B.           All those who bicker are married

C.           Ramesh and Rita are married

D.           Ramesh and Rita bicker often

E.            Ramesh and Rita do not bicker

F.            Ramesh and Rita are not married

a.   ADC

b.   BDF

c.   BDC

d.   ABC

116.

A.           All Ps and Qs are Zs

B.           All Zs contain Ts

C.           All that do not contain Ts are not Zs

D.           Some Ps are not Zs

E.            Some Zs are not Ps

F.            All Ps and Qs contain Ts.

a.   CDF

b.   BDE

c.   BEF

d.   ABF

117.

A.     All Gods are omni present

B.     Murphy is omnipotent

C.     Murphy is not a God

D.     Murphy is a God

E.      All Gods are omnipotent

F.      Some Gods are omnipotent

a.   DBF

b.   BDE

c.   EBD

d.   EDB

118.

A.     No American is lazy

B.     All Americans are lazy

C.     No lazy person is intelligent

D.     All lazy persons are intelligent

E.      No American is intelligent

F.      All Americans are intelligent

a.   ACE

b.   ECD

c.   BDE

d.   BCE

119.

A.     Pepsi and Coke are competitors

B.     Those who collaborate do not compete

C.     Some competitors collaborate

D.     Pepsi and Code do not copete

E.      Pepsi and Coke always collaborate

F.      Pepsi and Coke often collaborate

a.   CFD

b.   ACF

c.   AEF

d.   EBD

120

A.     All well-made products are Japanese

B.     All Japanese products are well-made

C.     Some Japanese products are liked

D.     All well-made products are liked

E.      All Japanese products are liked

F.      Some well-made products are liked

a.   ABD

b.   BDE

c.   BCD

d.   ACF

Directions:  For Question No. 121 – 125 arrange the sentences A, B, C, D in a logical sequence between the sentences (1) and (6) so as to make logical sense.

121.

1)   In India 80 percent of the people are treated by practitioners of two ancient forms of folk medicine.

A.  An outgrowth of early Greek pharmacology, Unani was brought to India by 8th century A.D.Arab invaders.

B.   One of these forms is Unani medicine, based on herbal medicines

C.  It uses a variety of substances (some 7000 prescriptions, 600 for purgatives alone) and may be as old as Indian civilization.

D.  The other is Ayurvedic medicine

6)   Its medicines are said to have been developed by physicians of the Hindu gods.

a.   DCBA

b.   BADC

c.   ABCD

d.   CDBA

122.

1)   To cure degenerative diseases will require pharmacological sharp-shooting in the technical phrase, the use of drugs with a very high specificity of action.

A.  Drugs have been successful in knocking out microbes because high specificity is not essential to that task.

B.   There is, therefore, a reasonable probability that a drug damaging to microbes will not seriously damage the human body.

C.  The targets are organisms whose physiology differs radically from that of man.

D.  But in degenerative disease the target is some abnormal process of the patient’s own body.

6.   Generally physicians do not know precisely what process is at fault; even if they did, they would still face the delicate task of correcting the deranged process without disrupting other, normal processes on which life depends.

a.   CBDA

b.   ABCD

c.   ACBD

CADB

123.

1)   Man, with his highly evolved brain, has the gift of language-and with this unique tool has opened up frontiers of learning sealed to all dumb animals.

A.  They are our flexible, almost inexhaustible currency of communication.

B.   They can be written, enabling us to communicate the whole body of our past as well as the present.

C.  Finally, they are the basic tools we think with.

D.  Words, those easily communicable, abstract symbols for everything visible and invisible he cares to think about, tumble in his brain and from his tongue; English is just one collection, but it consists of ore than half a million of them.

a.   DCBA

b.   DABC

c.   ACBD

d.   ABDC

 

124.

1)   Throughout his later years, Vincent Van Gogh painted to preserve himself from madness.

A.  Indeed, the remarkable power of his art lies in the tension between artistic control and the underlying sense of chaos.

B.   In his last paintings, elements of psychosis and artistic genius merged.

C.  “The work distracts may mind”, he wrote “and I must have some distraction,”

D.  Van Gogh’s unique style incorporated exaggerations characteristic of psychotic art, yet this gave his work a message all men could grasp.

6)   Few psychotic artists have been able to do this.

a.   CADB

b.   CABD

c.   CBDA

d.   CDAB

125.

1)   Intelligence covers a broad range of mental activities, from insight to logical thought, and some of them can be tested by problems and puzzles.

A.  But a true intelligence test, unlike the puzzles, evaluates the subject’s intelligence with a score

B.   Since all the aspects of intelligence seem to include a capacity for grasping intangible concepts most, like the IQ tests measure our ability to find meaning and relationship in pure concepts; words, numbers geometric figures.

C.  They do not measure how much tests have been devised and given to literally millions of people.

D.  Since Binet’s time, many such tests have been devised and given to literally millions of people.

6)   Deliberately impersonal as they are though, they reliably measure a capacity we use in a personal way to enrich our lives.

a.   ADBC

b.   CBAD

c.   CDAB

d.   DBCA

Directions:  Question 126 – 127 , choose the correct alternatives.

126.    A businessman travels to Delhi for a meeting.  He may go either by air or by rail.  If he goes by air, it is likely that he would be in time for the meeting.  If he goes by rail, it is unlikely that he will be in time for the meeting.  The businessman was just ten minutes late for the meeting. So,

a.             He must have traveled by air

b.            He must have traveled by rail.

c.             It is more likely that he traveled by rail than by air.

d.            He must have reached Delhi about ten minutes before the meeting began.

127.    A television advertisement for any product is remembered for at least 1 month if it is seen only once.  If the ad is seen twice, it will be remembered for atleast 2 months.  The ad will be remembered for at least 3 months if it is seen more than 2 times.  A person remembered and ad 6 months after it was first telecasted.  Therefore,

a.       He must have a seen it at least once

b.      He must have seen it at least twice

c.       He must have a seen it at least thrice

d.      It is not likely that he saw the ad the first time it was telecasted.

Directions:  For Question 128-132, read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow.

An engineer, an artist, and a doctor are moving earthwards in a spaceship.   Due to equipment malfunction, the spaceship will now be able to carry a maximum of 2 people.  So, one or more people wil now have to get off the spaceship and try to make their way back to earch in individual space jets which have little chance of surviving the journey.

Each of the travelers has the following opinions on the situation:

Engineer:  The artist must leave if he has completed all his paintings.  However, if the artist weighs less than 40 kg, the doctor must leave.

Doctor: The person with the lowest IQ must leave the spaceship.

Artist : The oldest person must be asked to leave the spaceship.

In case of conflict between any of the traveler’s opinions, all three people will be forced to leave the spaceship as per the earth control station’s orders.

128.    If the engineer has the lowest IQ, which of the following must be true?

a.       The artist leaves the spaceship

b.      The artist does not leave the spaceship

c.       The engineer leaves the spaceship if he is the oldest person.

d.      All three leave the spaceship if the engineer is the youngest person.

129.    If only the artist left the spaceship, which of the following must be true?,

a.       The artist is the oldest person.

b.      The doctor has the lowest IQ

c.       The engineer is the youngest person

d.      The artist weighs less than 40 kg.

130.    If earth control is forced to intervene,

a.             The artist must have completed all his paintings

b.            The engineer is the oldest person

c.             The artist weighs less than 40 kg.

d.            None of the above needs to be true.

131.    If the engineer somehow managed to reach earth safely on a space jet, which of the following could be true?

a.             The engineer has the highest IQ

b.            The artist did not leave the spaceship and had completed all his paintings

c.             The artist left the spaceship but the doctor did not

d.            The doctor had the lowest IQ and did not leave the spaceship.

132.    If the artist has completed his paintings, which of the following is impossible?

a.             Only the artist, whose IQ is higher than that of the doctor’s , leaves the spaceship.

b.            Only the engineer remains in the spaceship.

c.             Only the engineer leaves the spaceship

d.            All of the above

 

Directions:  Question No. 134 – 138 contain six statements followed by four sets of combinations of three.  Choose the set in which the statements are logically related.

133.

A.        All men are good

B.         Some men are not good

C.        A few men do not believe in God

D.        No good man believes in God

E.         No man who does not believe in God is good.

F.         Some men do not believe in God.

a.         ABD

b.         ACB

c.         ECF

d.         BED

134.

A.        Rajendra is a n industrialist

B.         Some men are cruel

D.        No industrialist is honest

E.         Rajendra is not honest

F.         Rajendra is not cruel

a.         ACF

b.         ABE

c.         DCE

d.         ADE

135.

A.        All dogs are honest

B.         Dogs are characterized by honesty

C.        Xerox is a dog

D.        Anish’s pet is a dog

E.         All honest animals are dogs.

F.         Xerox is honest

a.         BDF

b.         ACF

c.         ADE

d.         CEF

136.    

A.        Some Asians are Indians

B.         Some Asians are hardworking

C.        All Indians are Asians

D.        Some Indians are hardworking

F.         No Indian is hardworking

a.         DEB

b.         CEB

c.         CFB

d.         DFB

137.    

A.        Some books are funny

B.         Some books are not funny

C.        All funny books are bestsellers

D.        Some best sellers are not funny

E.         Some books are not bestsellers

F.         Some books are bestsellers

a.         BDE

b.         CDF

c.         ACF

d.         BDF


 

 

Vocabulary and Writing Skills


 

Directions:  Question No. 138 – 142 have a pair of words in capital followed by four other pairs.  Choose the pair of words which are RELATED to each other in the way the capitalized words are related.

138.     PERIOD:   STOP

a.   Car            : Signal

b.   Road :Junction

c.   Train :Station

d.   Handshake : Greet

139.DEMAGOGUE:POLITICSD

a.   Hero : Villain

b.   Charlatan : Art

c.   Connoisseur : Wine

d.   Quack : Medicine

140.     CLARITY : THOUGHT

a.   Currency : Exchange

b.   Flexibility : Attitude

c.   Abundance : Resources

d.   Fluency : Speech

141.     COBBLER : HIDE

a.   Farmer : Grain

b.   Carpenter : Furniture

c.   Author : Book

d.   Tailor : Cloth

142.     WISDOM : ERR

a.   Generous : Fulfill

b.   Mute : Sing

c.   Dastardly : Renege

d.   Prosperity : Squander

 

Directions : For Question 143 – 130 , choose the odd man out.

143.    

a.         Cogent

b.         Circular

c.         Compelling

d.         Incisive

144.

a.         Deduce

b.         Infer

c.         Derive

d.         Abstract

145.

a.         Heuristic

b.         Methods

c.         Procedure

d.         Plan

146.

a.         Hind

b.         Equivocal

c.         Inkling

d.         Notion

147

a.         Restrictions

b.         Quarantaine

c.         Embargo

d.         Sanctions

Directions : Question 148 – 151, have a pair of words in capitals followed by four other pairs.  Choose the pair of words which are NOT RELATED to each other in the way the capitalized words are related.

148.    REGENERATE : SPIRIT

a.      Reinstate : power

b.      Rejuvenate : Yough

c.      Resurrect : Life

d.      Cenovate : Physique

149.    AMPLIFY : ARGUMENT

a.      Redouble : Efforts

b.      maximize : Profits

c.      Exacerbate: Sales

d.      Enhance : Power

150.    BOOKS : BIBLIOMANIA

a.      Fire : Pyromania

b.      Oneself : Megalomania

c.      Pleasure : Hedonomania

d.      Stealing : Kleptomania

151.    SIZE : COMPRESS

a.      Workforce : Retrench

b.      Intensity : Abate

c.      Passage : Precis

d.      Importance : Diminish

 

Directions : Question No. 152 – 160 contain sentence split into 4 parts.  Choose the part which has an error.

152.

a.      When I came to

b.      Bombay for the first time

c.      Where to go and what to see

d.      Was my main concern

153.

a.      Everyone in the

b.      Women’s movement

c.      Has had their own experience

d.      Of sexual discrimination

154.

a.      If I would have known

b.      She would be here

c.      I don’t suppose

d.      I would have come

155

a.      The Philippines

b.      Are a

c.      Predominantly

d.      Agricultural country

156. 

a.      having missed the bus

b.      The rain seemed

c.      Even colder

d.      And wetter

157

a.      He had

b.      Warned us

c.      That he may

d.      Arrive unexpectedly

158.

a.      I am

b.      The sort of person

c.      Who like

d.      Peace and quiet

159.

a.      I cannot tell

b.      Which of

c.      The two sisters

d.      Is the eldest

160  

a.      Everyone

b.      Except the Germans

c.      Want

d.      The ban lifted

 


 

 

Reading Comprehension


 

Read the following passage and answer the given questions.

Set a dozen contemporary critics to make lists of the best books, pictures, buildings, plays, and the results will be fairly harmonious.  These results (it is claimed) may be regarded as evidence that among qualified judges there is an agreement sufficient to serve as a working substitute for some undiscovered, and perhaps undiscoverable, criterion of artistic merit.

But the more we examine the character of this agreement among experts the less weight shall we feel disposed to attach to it – and for more than one reason.  In the first place, it must be remembered that the very fact of its existence has caused the cultivated portion of making – all who take even the most superficial interest in literature and art – to fall under the influence of a common literary and artistic tradition.  This has many consequences.  It inclines some persons to assume an admiration which they do not feel for things which everybody round them thinks worthy to do admired.  Others again keep silent when they cannot praise.  Nothing, they think is gained by emphasizing dissent.  Why proclaim from the housetops that some author, long since dead, does not, in their opinion, deserve the share of fame assigned to him by accepted tradition?  Let him rest.  A more important effect is that the unfelt pressure of general opinion produces not merely sham professions, but genuine sentiments.  Fashion, whether in clothes or operas, whether in manners or in morals is an influence which, though it may produce some hypocrites, most certainly produces many true believers.  And tradition, though infinitely more than mere fashion, is fashion still.

These considerations require us largely to discount the agreement prevalent in current estimates of literature and art.  But there is a more important point still to be noted, which yet further diminishes the value of any conclusions which that agreement may seem to support.  For we are bound to ask how deep the agreement goes even in the cases where in some measure it may be truly said to exist.  Do critics who would approximately agree in their lists of great artists agree as to the order their excellence?  Do men of ‘trained sensibility’ feel alike in the presence of the same masterpiece?  I do not believe it.  The mood of admiration aroused by style, by technical skill, by the command of material and instruments, may well form a common ground where competent critics will find themselves in decent agreement.  But as the quality of aesthetic emotion rises, as we approach the level where the sentiment of beauty becomes intense, and the passion of admiration incommunicable, there is not – and I believe, cannot be any real unanimity of personal valuation.  On these high peaks men never wander in crowds; they whose paths lie close together on the slopes below perforce divide into diminishing companies, as each moves upwards towards his chosen ideals of excellence.

If any men doubt that the agreement among experts is in some degree artificial, and in some degree imaginary let hhim turn for a moment from the critics who have created our literary and artistic tradition to the men of genius who have created literature and art.  No one will deny that they were men of trained sensibility’ no one will maintain that they were agreed.  So little, indeed, have they been agreed, that the law of change prevailing through certain important periods of artistic history seems to be based on their disagreement.  Successive epochs, which show little difference in other elements of culture, yet often differ vehemently in their aesthetic judgments.  Action is followed by reaction. A school, at one moment dominant, gradually decays, and is succeeded by another of sharply contrasted characteristics.  The art-producing fields get wearied, as it were, f a crop too often sown; their harvests dwindle’ until in the fullness of time a new vegetation, drawing upon fresh sources of nourishment, springs suddenly into vigorous and aggressive life.

161.    The people who are responsible for a society’s artistic tradition are

a.       Artists themselves

b.      Cultivated people

c.       Critics by and large

d.      None of the above

162.    According to the author, the cultivated portion of mankind includes.

a.       People who take only superficial interest in art

b.      Critics

c.       People genuinely interested in art and literature

d.      All of the above

163.    A group of able critics can reach a fair agreement on all the following qualities of a work of art except in the matter of its

a.       Quality of aesthetic emotion

b.      Style

c.       Command of material

d.      Technical skill

164.    When there is an expert agreement about some work of art being great

a.       The artistic tradition gets enriched

b.      The connoisseurs are compelled to take serious interest in it

c.       People who do not agree with the opinions of the critics get embittered

d.      Some who actually don’t consider it great, tend to admire it as a great work.

165.    The true belivers (para 2) the authors speak of are

a.       Genuine admirers

b.      People with ‘trained sensibilities’

c.       Mostly hypercritical people

d.      None of the above

166.    Even the most balanced agreement among the critics cannot establish

a.       The correct artistic tradition to which the work of art belongs.

b.      Real inmpact of the work of art on the prevailing tradition

c.       An order of excellence among artists

d.      The real purpose of the artist in producing the work.

167.    The severity of disagreement among critics rises when

a.       A particular school is on the decline

b.      A school of art is dominant

c.       The quality of aesthetic emotion in a work of art is high

d.      The mood of admiration is aroused by isolated elements such as style.

168.    The critics are together on the ‘slopes below’

a.       Their capacity to appreciate art is low

b.      When relatively simple elements that concern a work of art are involved

c.       They indulge in disagreeing vehemently

d.      They are not being genuine people with ‘trained sensibilities’

169.    The changes in successive eras in art history are, to a significant extent, due to

a.       The changing artistic taste of the cultivated people

b.      The marked disagreement among artists about aesthetic excellence

c.       The disagreement among critics about what constitutes artistic excellence

d.      The unfelt pressure of the public opinion

170.    The things that remain relatively unaltered between different artistic epochs are the

a.       Cultural pattern of a society

b.      Public taste in art

c.       Uniformity of opinion among art critics

d.      All of the above.

 

Read the following passage and answer given questions.

Advertising is frequently subject of criticism.  It is normally attached on economic and ethical grounds.  Where the economic argument is concerned, the question essentially is, “Is advertising productive in the economic sense, i.e does it maximize satisfaction through the utilization of scarce  resources?  “The cliché, ‘It pays to advertise’ is a tacit recognition of the fact that advertising imnproves the profitability of the advertiser but this is not to say that it necessarily makes any ral contribution to the welfare of the community as a whole.

From the economist’s point of view, the acid test of any economic activity is the utility of the output of that activity which is measured by the extent to which it satisfies wants.  For the economist, the difficulty of accepting that advertising creates utility in this sense is both semantic and conceptual.  The economist would argue that rather than satisfy existing wants the advertiser seeks to create wants for something that is already available.  Advertisers would probably argue that you cannot create wants you can only create better ways of satisfying existing wants, and that consumers derive satisfaction from advertised goods.  Similarly, to argue that advertising persuades people to consume things they don’t want is to deny one of the basic assumptions of the economist – that, by and large, people are rational in their purchasing behavior.

Many economists draw a distinction between ‘informative’ and ‘combative’ advertising, following the definition of Alfred Marshall in his book Industry and Trade (1919).  The distinction was further elaborated in the March 1928 isue of the ‘Economic Journal’ whereas advertising designed to stimulate demand is non-essential and largely unproductive.  In the April 1962 issue of the same Journal, Samuel Courtland was to assert, “most competitive advertising is a costly national extravagance”.

It would seem therefore, that critics concede the value of informative advertising as a means of making the consumer aware of the existence of goods and services and their basic properties, but that they consider combative advertising to be a wasteful use of resources.  It is difficult to see how the distinction can be maintained, since an advertisement for a new product may be informative in that it makes consumers aware of the existence and characteristics of this product, and combative, in that it seeks to persuade consumers to buy the new product in preference to a previously available substitute.

The ethical argument against advertising consists in the belief that it encourages the development of materialism.  F.P. Bishop, in his book, The Ethics of Advertising, defines materialism as “an acquisitive ideology in which the satisfaction of material desires is held up as the sole or principal end for the individual or group.”  In the creation of a materialistic society advertising is charged with deliberately concentrating on those motives that are least desirable in man and of least value to society.  One can be shown immumerable advertisements that appealed to one or more of the ‘seven deadly sins’ or that play on the emotion most easily stimulated in the human animal – fear; fear of being left out, of being socially unacceptable, or of being considered socially inferior in some way or other.  Advertising is further indicated in that it sets out to eliminate non conformity and discourage originality in thought, word and deed.  Admass leaves no room for reason, and cultivates the herd instinct.

Finally in the words of H.S.J Basten in Advertising Reconsidered, “The major part of informative advertising is and always has been a campaign of exaggeration, half truths, intended ambiguities, direct lies and general deception.”

Most marketing experts would readily agree that the acquisition of material things is a means to an end and not an end in itself, but would also argue that man has feee will and therefore the right to decide for himself what level of material consumption he will seek to attain.  Religion and philosophy offer us a wide range of alternatives from which to choose a set of principles that will constitute a ‘good life’ .  whereas mere possessions are unlikely to result in satisfaction in the total sense, it is also true that a certain level of material goods is essential to the maintenance of life.

The other argument for the retention of advertising is that it helps preserve freedom of speech and freedom of choice.  Modern media are dependent on advertising revenues for their continued existence.  On their existence largely rests the continued freedom of speech, for, as we know, one of the first acts of a dictatorship is to secure control f the means of mass communication.

171.    The familiar saying “It pays to advertise”, recognizes the fact that

a.       The advertiser invariably profits by advertising

b.      Advertising contributes to the welfare of a community as a whole.

c.       Advertising maximizes satisfaction through the utilization of scarce resources.

d.      Advertising contributes to the satisfaction of human wants

172.    According to economists only those economic activities are justifiable and are of worth which

a.       Seek to create wants

b.      Satisfy existing wants

c.       Find new and novel ways of dealing with human wants

d.      None of these

173.    Advertising designed to stimulate demand is called

a.       Information advertising

b.      Productive advertising

c.       Active advertising

d.      Combative advertising

174.    Economists value informative advertising over combative advertising because informative advertising

a.       Persuades consumers to buy the new product in preference to a previously available substitute.

b.      Is mainly designed to stimulate demand

c.       Can be regarded as a true and justified selling expense

d.      None of these

175.    The writer makes a reference to the ‘Seven Deadly Sins’ in order to focus on the fact that

a.       Advertising makes people feel socially inferior in some way or the other.

b.      Advertising concentrates on motives that are undesirable in man and of no value to society

c.       A major part of informative advertising is a campaign of exaggeration and half truths.

d.      Advertising discourages originally in thought, word and deed.

176.    The distinction between informative advertising and combative advertising cannot be very rigid because

a.       Both can be regarded as a justified selling expense in view of the service they render to the marketing of a product

b.      Both can be attacked as anon-essential, unproductive and a costly national extravagance

c.       An advertisement for a new product both informs the consumer and persuades him to prefer it over an existing substitute

d.      Both recognize the fact that, by and large, people are rational in their purchasing behavior

177.    Which of the following statements is false?

a.       Advertising is without doubt, based on the belief that the satisfaction of material desires is the principal end for the individual or group.

b.      Advertising often cultivates the herd instinct.

c.       The fact that most competitive advertising is costly national extravagance, was first asserted by Samuel Courtland

d.      Economists attack advertising for persuading people to consume things they do not want.

178.    marketing experts counter the materialistic charge against advertising by

a.       Asserting that, for the average man, ultimate satisfaction in life does lie in material consumption.

b.      Reasoning that man has free will and can decide what level of material consumption he wants to attain

c.       Pointing out that religion and philosophy offer us a wide range of alternatives from which to choose a set of principles that will constitute a good life.

d.      Agreeing that acquisition of material things is means to an end and not an end in itself.

179.    By referring to the muzzling of mass media to dictatorship, the writer wants to focus on the fact that

a.       Advertising preserves freedom of speech and freedom of choice.

b.      Modern media are dependent upon advertising revenues for their continued existence

c.       Advertising can never flourish in a dictatorship

d.      None of these

180.    A suitable title to this passage can be

a.       The Harmful Effects of Advertising

b.      Advertising:  Domain of materialists

c.       Economic and Technical Aspects of Advertising

d.      The Role of Advertising in the modern world.

 


 

Key to Practice Test III


 

1. a

2. c

3. b

4. b

5. a

6. c

7. a

8. a

9. d

10. c

11. c

12. b

13. c

14. a

15. d

16. b

17. b

18. d

19. c

20. a

21. c

22. a

23. b

24. a

25. d

26. c

27. a

28. c

29. d

30. a

31. c

32. c

33. b

34. d

35. b

36. d

37. d

38. b

39. b

40. d

41. b

42. b

43. c

44. c

45. d

46. b

47. c

48. c

49. b

50. c

51. a

52. a

53. a

54. d

55. c

56. b

57. c

58. a

59. c

60. d

61. a

62. b

63. a

64. b

65. b

66. d

67. c

68. c

69. b

70. b

71. c

72. b

73. b

74. b

75. a

76. c

77. b

78. b

79. c

80. c

81. d

82. a

83. b

84. a

85. b

86. a

87. c

88. c

89. c

90. c

91. a

92. d

93. c

94. d

95. d

96. b

97. b

98. c

99. d

100. a

101. c

102. a

103. a

104. b

105. b

106. b

107. c

108. d

109. b

110. d

111. c

112. a

113. d

114. c

115. c

116. d

117. d

118. d

119. d

120. b

121. b

122. c

123. b

124. b

125. a

126. c

127. a

128. d

129. a

130. d

131. a

132. d

133. c

134. d

135. b

136. b

137. c

138. d

139. d

140. d

141. d

142. b

143. b

144. d

145. d

146. b

147. b

148. d

149. c

150. b

151. a

152. d

153. c

154. a

155. b

156. b

157. c

158. c

159. d

160. c

161. c

162. d

163. a

164. d

165. d

166. c

167. c

168. b

169. b

170. a

171. a

172. b

173. d

174. c

175. b

176. c

177. a

178. b

179. a

180. c