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Directions for questions 31 to 60: Read the passages carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Passage - I

I greet my countrymen on this historic day from this historic place. There are certain historic events, which leave a deep impression on the life of every individual. Our independence is one such event. Independence Day has special significance for us because on this day we began a new life. On this day, nineteen years ago, the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, unfurled the national flag from the ramparts of the Red Fort. On this day, he lit the torch of freedom and laid the foundation of Independent India.

On this day, our minds turn to our great leaders and to innumerable people from all parts of the country who flung themselves into the freedom struggle and made immense sacrifices. They were truly great men. We owe our freedom to their courage, forbearance and sacrifice. The responsibility of following the path shown by these great sons of India depends on us.

Standing here on the ramparts of Red Fort, my mind inevitably turns to India's past - a past studded with achievements in science, philosophy and in other fields. India was an advanced nation and had provided leadership to the world. How can we forget India's glorious past? It is for us to see that our record remains unblemished.

On this occasion, we naturally think of the Father of the Nation. Jawaharlal Nehru had once described Mahatma Gandhi as a magician. Despite his belief in science and the new world, Jawaharlal Nehru felt that the path shown by Mahatma Gandhi was the right path. 'Non-violence', 'truth' and ‘swadeshi’ summed up Gandhiji's message. It is my firm belief that this message still holds good.

Non-violence means that we should live in peace and amity, and entertain respect for one another's views. It also means that we should entertain respect for nations professing different ideologies.

Similarly, we want truth to pervade all our actions. Fearlessness is an essential part of truth. We should be as fearless today as we were during the struggle for freedom. We should not be afraid of making changes. We should be willing to adopt new paths and to imbibe new ideas. It is very necessary for us to have a complete understanding of the problems facing us. Only then can we find the way out.

Swadeshi is the third part of Gandhiji's message. The country is faced with economic difficulties. We can improve the economic situation by imbibing the spirit of swadeshi. Swadeshi does not mean that we do not import at all. It only means that we should exercise the utmost economy, patronize our own goods and make full use of available resources. If, however, it becomes necessary to import with a view to learning new techniques, we should not hesitate to do so. The responsibility for popularizing the swadeshi movement does not rest with the Government alone. Every citizen, be he a villager or a town dweller, has to play an important part in popularizing it.

We have accepted the socialist path because we feel that there is no other way of eradicating poverty. Democracy is the base of our socialism. Democracy confers many rights on the individual. These rights have corresponding duties. Our greatest duty is to help the nation achieve progress. We have launched many development programmes. The purpose of these programmes is the removal of poverty. We have to wage a relentless war against poverty. I appeal to my countrymen to join this battle.

The peasantry is the most important wing of our society. Peasants are the predominant section of our population. I appeal to them to adopt modern techniques of agricultural production. I also need their co-operation in bringing about reforms in rural life.

The role of labor is equally important. A great responsibility rests on their shoulders to increase production for defense and for other purposes. By increasing production, they will improve their own living standards and also help the nation in its march towards progress.

Our brave Jawans (soldiers) are guarding our frontiers. Our hearts go out to them. Let us remember that our defenses lie not only on the Himalayas but in every village, every town and every city. The peasant, the labourer, the industrialist, the businessman, the teacher and the employee have all an equally great responsibility in this task. Each one of them should discharge this responsibility faithfully.

Artists, writers and thinkers, too, have a responsibility. This is to show the nation the right path. They should not hesitate to imbibe new ideas from abroad. They should also see that our own ideas flow to other countries.

We have to continue our march towards progress. There can be no let-up. Many sections of our society have suffered from neglect for centuries. There are the Harijans, the adivasis [tribal people], the hill people and the minorities. We pay special attention to them. We have drawn up programmes for their welfare. But much more remains to be done. I am fully aware of their difficulties. Some of them suffered hardship during the recent drought. Without their uplift, the nation cannot make much progress. I appeal for their co-operation in the tasks facing the nation.

Then, there are the women of India, belonging to all sections of society and engaged in multifarious tasks. They carry the responsibility of running the home, of bringing up the new generation and of braving the difficulties arising from spiraling prices. Women constitute 50 per cent of the country's population. For centuries, they have imparted strength to the nation. For centuries, they have upheld the noble traditions of India. We look to them again to maintain the high traditions of our culture. They continue to be the source of the nation's strength. We look to them for inspiration.

Innumerable people participated in the struggle for freedom. Many of them are not in our midst today. On this day, we pay our homage to them. Some of our freedom fighters are old. We are benefiting by their experience.

A new generation of Indians is coming up. They were not witness to the freedom struggle. They are not aware of the fervor that impelled us to fight for freedom. The responsibility for the nation's progress and development falls on them as much as it falls on those who were associated with the struggle for freedom.

We are faced with threats on our borders. We are also faced with the threat of poverty and backwardness inside the country. We cannot fight the battle against poverty successfully unless we accept new ideas, unless we do away with superstition, unless we work with dedication and determination to attain progress, unless we are prepared to make sacrifices in the face of difficulties. It is the duty of every individual to lend his co-operation in this great task. No one can absolve himself of this responsibility. We cannot remain idle spectators. We are all soldiers in the fight against poverty.

At the time of aggression on our borders, our young men, our students, offered to lay down their lives to defend the country's territorial integrity. They were ready to write with their blood a new chapter in the history of India. The nation beckons to them again. They should be ready to take up the challenge. They have to infuse new life into the nation. They have to regenerate the nation.

We are assembled at the historic Red Fort today. The eyes of the entire nation are focused on us. We have the panorama of Indian history behind us and we have the vision of a bright future ahead. Every citizen should ask himself what he can contribute to the making of a bright future for the country. He should ask himself whether the nation's politics and programmes can be successfully implemented. On the answer to this question depends our progress. If the people are assailed by doubts and hesitation, difficulties will naturally arise. But if they are resolute in accepting the challenge, the nation can face both external and internal dangers and march towards progress. It is not an easy task; we never had any illusions about it. We may have made mistakes. We may not have moved with speed. But many of our difficulties are the result of the process of change and development itself. If we had remained static, our difficulties may not have increased, but we would have remained a poor and backward nation. We have deliberately chosen the more difficult path of change and progress.

Let us recapture the fervor, which characterized our freedom struggle, and work with dedication for a new revolution which will energise the whole nation and inspire us to answer the call of our motherland. I have absolutely no doubt that we have it in us to achieve great things. But if we stray from the right path, we will be heading towards ruin, and the sacrifices of the great sons of India would have been in vain. Let us draw inspiration from those who fought for freedom and kept the nation's flag flying.

We extend our hand to all friendly nations. Our sympathies are with the victims of colonialism. We will continue to raise our voice against injustice and war everywhere. We want the subject peoples, the victims of oppression everywhere in the world, to breathe the air of freedom and to have full opportunities for progress.

I take a pledge on this day to work for the nation's uplift and to fight injustice everywhere. If we march in unison as disciplined soldiers along the path shown by Gandhiji and Jawaharlal Nehru, we can make India a great nation. Let us all take this pledge.

I call upon you to join me in raising the great slogan given us by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. This slogan represents our strength. Join me in raising the slogan three times. Your voice is the voice of a great nation. It should reach the far-off mountains and every nook and corner of India. It should inspire courage and self-confidence in every Indian. Jai Hind, Jai Hind, Jai Hind.


The author says they are 'truly' great men. Who were those?

   a. All those leaders big and small, who lit the torch of freedom and laid the 
       foundation of India 

   b. Those businessmen, high and low, who put their shoulder in support of freedom  

   c. Those peasants, artisans, humble women, all over India who took to spinning

   d. All the three above put together


The salient features of Mahatma Gandhi's message was

  1. Truth 

  2. Non-violence 

  3. Swadeshi

  4. All put together


Select the false statement Swadeshi means

   a. We should stop all imports

   b. We continue importing necessary machinery and medicines 

   c. We should exercise utmost economy

   d. We throw away our thermometers


Non-violence was

   a. A weapon to disarm the violent methods of the British.

   b. An ideal to achieve peaceful co existence. 

   c. A concept to guide Indians to practice balance.

   d. A method of stabilizing the government


What are the author's views on 'democracy'?

a. Democracy is the base of our socialism

b. Democracy confers no rights on the individual

c. Democracy has all rights and no duties.

d. Democracy was well followed in Pakistan.


The responsibilities of artists, writers, and thinkers are

a. They should show the nation the right path

b. They should feel free to imbibe new ideas from abroad

c. They should see our own ideas flow to other countries

d. All the three above put together


We cannot fight the battle against poverty successfully ... (Choose what is Not correct)

a. Unless we accept new ideas

b. Unless we stay with superstition

c. Unless we work with dedication

d. Unless we are prepared to make sacrifices in the face of difficulties


We look to women of India for inspiration

a. They run the home

b. They bring up the new generation

c. They brave the spiraling of prices

d. All the three above put together


The difficult path of change and progress, according to author,

a.  has been deliberately chosen by us

b.  has been thrust on us by the British

c.  had we remained static, we would have been safe

d.  we did move with speed


What then, is the responsibility of each and every citizen of this great country?

a.  He or she should ask himself or herself what he or she can contribute to the bright
     future of the country

b.  He or she should actively compliment the various developmental programmes

c.  He or she should remove doubt, suspicion, fear

d.  All the three put together


Passage - II

"INDIAN BANKS are weighed down by enormous amounts of bad loans that threaten the very health of the banking system. Surely, banks in China, which are far more advanced economically and industrially, would be healthier than Indian banks. Among the Indian banks, public sector is the worst affected and among banks in the private sector, the newer tech-savvy and the foreign banks are the least vulnerable to bad loans. If only the hard core bad loans are separated and sold to an outside agency, the problem could be largely resolved". These and similar opinions are held by knowledgeable persons both in the banking system and outside it. But then, these contain untruths and half-truths, as discussed below.

It is a fact that the problem of bad loans is plaguing the banking system for quite some time. The quantum of bad loans, called inelegantly as non-performing assets (NPAs) is a fairly high proportion of total loans. The percentage of net NPA to advances of scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) in India was 6.2 per cent on March 31, 2001, according to the Reserve Bank of India report on Trends and Progress of Banking in India. The relative level in the U.S. would be less than 2 per cent. Given the fact that the total capital and reserves of SCBs were around 5.23 per cent of total assets, one might jump to the conclusion that NPA was more than the capital and reserves. But, the net NPA amounting to Rs. 32,468 crores represents less than half of capital resources at Rs. 67,741.47 crores. This is because a good chunk of the assets of banks securities, which is fully realizable and risk-free. Further, all NPAs are not irrecoverable and banks do have some securities to back up the NPAs. Therefore, it is clear that the Indian banking system is basically safe; well, some banks are reportedly more adventurous than others, like a South-based private bank that was in the headlines recently.

In any comparison between India and China, except perhaps in the area of democracy, China comes out on tops. Certainly, in industrialization, export performance, in the level of discipline among the populace and adherence to law, China should rank better. Therefore, banks in China would, one might presume, be healthier than Indian banks. Facts portray a contrary picture. As per the Banker magazine (a sister publication of Financial Times of the U.K.), the level of NPA to total assets in the two biggest banks in China, Commercial Bank of China and Bank of China were 25.01 per cent and 28.8 per cent respectively in 2000. As against this, Naps of Indian banks were 2.5 per cent of total assets (not advances) as on March 31, 2001. Banks in India are thus in a much better state of health than their counterparts in China.

In some respects, the problem of NPA of public sector banks is more acute than private banks, but the picture is somewhat blurred. The NPA was 6.7 per cent of advances for public sector banks against 5.4 per cent for private sector banks and 2.2 per cent for foreign banks in 2001. However, for the older private sector banks, that is, other than those that started in the 1990s, the NPA was 7.3 per cent, which is higher than the public sector banks. These are average figures. Looking at figures of individual banks, some of the private and foreign banks reflect a pathetic figure as compared to the public sector. The highest level in public sector bank was in Dena Bank (18.29 per cent) and four others have higher than 10 per cent. The highest figure among all banks was a foreign bank, Bank Internasional Indonesia at 50.75 per cent and four other foreign banks have more than 20 per cent. Among them Dresdner Bank, a German bank with 24.05 per cent also figures. Three Indian private sector banks have more than 20 per cent, the highest being 23.70 per cent for Benares State Bank Ltd. Thus, public sector banks have been able to manage their loans better than the private sector, including some of the foreign banks.

The belief that, by separating the hard core NPA and selling them to a recovery agency, the problem of NPA could be resolved has caught the imagination of many seasoned veterans in banking. Many expert committees have recommended the setting up of Asset Reconstruction Company or Fund (ARC or ARF) on the lines of the model tried out in the U.S. and other countries. It is debatable if ARC would be an useful tool under Indian conditions.

The borrowers of the banking system could be broadly classified into business and industrial concerns and households and individuals. Households and individuals, including the agricultural sector, contribute to around 26 per cent of total advances, excluding loans to food procurement agencies (non-food credit).

In these cases, the ARF would not be of any help as banks do succeed in enforcing their rights against recalcitrant borrowers to a considerable extent or recover by reducing the dues by mutual agreement. (Yes, it is an unfortunate fact that banks are able to force recovery from the smaller borrowers but seem utterly helpless against larger borrowers, who are 'willful defaulters', due to the slow process of legal remedies and the defaulters taking refuge under the labyrinthine legal process).

The first Narasimham Committee which brought about revolutionary changes in the banking and financial system in 1991 suggested the formation of ARF "to facilitate recovery of dues from clients in respect of whom banks and financial institutions have already taken a decision to recall the loan and proceed with the enforcement of security".

It was also stressed that the ARF should focus on the larger borrowers. The total number of suit filed against borrowers enjoying advances of Rs. 1 crore and above from the banking system was 5,013 aggregating Rs. 27,988.59 crores as on March 31, 2000, according to the RBI publication. These suits are pending in various courts due to the inadequacy of courts to cope with the enormous number of cases before them; one estimate puts these at a few crore cases. It is extremely doubtful if a separate ARF can expedite matters.

In any case, these would have already been fully written off in the banks' books and the cases would be handled to the Law departments of various banks. The ARF would only act as the extended legal arm of banks; it would certainly be inappropriate to buy these dues from banks, as the recovery would take years.

ARF or ARC might be helpful in cases of commercial borrowers who default in payment of their dues, where banks have not written them off. In such cases, if the borrowers are industrial companies, the cases would come under a separate agency, Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), whose first objective, as the name implies, is to see if the company can be rehabilitated. In other words, the presumption is that the borrower should be kept alive with possible fresh infusion of advances.

This, it has become evident over the last few years, has created a problem of 'moral hazard'; the owners and managers, who were largely responsible for making the company sick, are given fresh funds are required, obviously an ARF, which cannot lend, is not the solution. The Government has declared that BIFR  would be closed and a more expeditious legal structure set up. But this could take some time.

The main handicap under which banks suffer in recovering their dues is the legal framework, which some feel, is debtor friendly. Many defaulting borrowers know that banks cannot force them to repay quickly, even if banks have the security, due to the long time taken in courts to enforce the security. To alleviate the problems of banks, Debt Recovery Tribunals were set up for speedy enforcement of law against defaulting borrowers, whose dues exceed Rs. 10 lakhs. There are loans given to State and Central public sector units which have failed to repay. The operations of Debt Recovery Tribunals are such that they have not so far made a dent in the NPA position of banks".

While on the subject, it is worth recording that even where an advance is guaranteed by Central or State Governments and the primary borrower is unable to repay, the guaranteeing Government rarely, if ever, honours its legal obligation as guarantor, because the bureaucrats want to ensure that the Government does not face a loss or the loss is largely reduced. The fact of Governments failing to honour financial obligations gives rise to a curious phenomenon. A guarantor would fail to pay, if he is either unwilling or unable to pay. The existence of bad loans is due to many causes, such as faulty initial scrutiny by banks, defective follow up of loans, economic slowdown, cheating by borrowers and the like; these causes require a separate study.  For the present discussion, the RBI report sums up succinctly "At the policy level, there is need for legislation which will make recovery processes smoother and legal action quicker".

Creation of ARF or even Debt Recovery Tribunals appears to be mere palliatives for a chronic illness that has so far defied solution. So long as borrowers know that the long arm of law would take years, perhaps decades, to bring them to books, banks would be the sufferers and the uninformed public would tend to blame the banks for problems over which banks have little control.


What according to the author is the possible remedy for the mounting hard-core bad loans in banks?

a.  Keep quiet, waive and forget

b.  Take vigorous legal steps

c.  Sell the bad loans to an outside agency

d.  Seek police assistance

42. The author implies that the Indian banking system is relatively safe because

a.  The loan advancing aspect is minimal in the case of Indian Banks

b.  Scrutiny by field officers is exemplary

c.  Securities are taken care of

d.  All the non-performing assets (NPAs) are not irrecoverable

43. What is NOT TRUE among the following statements?

a.  China and India are democratic nations

          b.  China ranks better than India with respect to industrialization, export performance,
               level of discipline among the populace and adherence to law

c.  China has greater population than India

d.  Banks in China have better health than those in India

44. It is easier to recover the loan amounts from

a.  Industrialists than from businessmen

b.  businessmen than from infrastructure builders

c.  individual borrowers than from industrialists

d.  House building contractors than from owners of flats

45. What according to the author is the handicap in recovering the loans?

a.  Records and sureties are not genuine

b.  Managers and field officers - not all are honest

c.  Legal system itself is loanee friendly

d.  General sluggishness from top to bottom

46. How does the author react towards the efficacy of Debt Recovery Tribunals?

a.  Their progress is too slow

b.  Less said the better

c.  Recoveries are possible through their intervention

d.  It is Godsend


Does the author mention the role of Government in ensuring quick recovery of bads loans?

How helpful is the government?

a.  They speak sweet but act harsh

b.  They sign as guarantor but later go back at the suggestion of recovery

c.  They have a luke-warm attitude

d.  Less intervention from them is itself a loan for banking industry

48. What is RBI's opinion?

a.  It wants banks to be fool proof at the initial stages

b.  It suggests no loans should ever be advanced

c.  It suggests streamlining the legal procedures to provide quick positive steps of full 

d.  It suggests the minimum loan amount to be Rs 50 lakh per individual

49. Do banks have control over hard-core defaulters?

a.  They are totally helpless

b.  Author is silent about this

c.  Documents are the only assistance but legal procedures take long time

d.  Honesty amongst borrowers is the first casualty

50. A suitable title for the passage can be

a.  Woes of Banking System

b.  A Worrisome Project

c.  A Happy Story

d.  Bank Now and Repent Later


Passage - III

For the second successive year, I have unfurled the National Flag on Red Fort. You will recall that last year we were drenched in rain on this occasion and there were earth tremors. The tremors were said to be a warning of coming difficulties. While on this day last year we stood in rain, there was a severe drought in many parts of the country. The people were faced with immense difficulties. Today, at this time, there is no rain here, but India is having an excellent monsoon. Let us hope that we have the required rainfall and the country takes a new turn. Let us hope there will be no more drought and food shortages. Let us hope that we will begin a new life.

Why has the Red Fort been chosen for this ceremony? Simply because Delhi is the heart of India and the Red Fort is our symbol of freedom and integrity. The banner of freedom was raised here on many occasions. When the last battle of freedom was fought and the country was partitioned and there were riots, the message of unity and independence went out from here.

The people of India have survived many crises. Today, there is a feeling of despondency in the country. Only a few days ago, we observed the 25the anniversary of the Quit India Movement. Twenty-five years ago there was gloom in the world. The world was in the midst of World War II. At that time, Gandhiji gave us the 'do or die' message to achieve deliverance from foreign rule. There was not a ray of hope of India becoming free. But in a short period of five years our dream came true. From this we have to learn the lesson that gloom is not perpetual. The darkness will end soon and the dawn is near. We will soon overcome our difficulties. We need courage and determination to do so.

Much has happened during the last twenty years. Perhaps we could have achieved much more. Nevertheless, our achievements are many. A new generation is born. It is not aware that India lived in slavery. It is not aware of our freedom struggle. It is not aware that the poor and hungry masses of India fought the mighty battle of freedom and won.

Some voices are raised that there has been no improvement in the lot of the Indian people. Publicity is given to this in India and abroad. But if we look around we will find that, while milk, sugar and other articles of daily necessity were cheaper in the past, there were no avenues of progress for the people. There were few facilities for the education of children. The living conditions of farmers and other rural folk were not satisfactory. Their children did not attend school. They did not own a bicycle. The sprit of enterprise was lacking. We have definitely made progress during the last twenty years. It may be that the pace of progress has not been fast enough, but it has been continuous.

Rural folk are aware of the difficulty of having to wade or swim across swollen rivers and rivulets during the monsoon. The current flows most swiftly in midstream and it is there too that the water is deepest. India is in a somewhat similar situation. We are in midstream. I have no doubt that, given courage and determination, the people of India will be able to cross the deep waters and reach the other bank. We cannot afford to look back; we cannot afford to wait even for a single second. We must continue our progress. We must cross the swollen river. Once across, our progress will be easier.

Violence has no place in India. We must fight communalism, linguism and casteism if we have to make speedier progress. Regionalism also poses a danger. One can understand the desire of every State to make progress but no individual or State can make progress in isolation. We must keep the picture of a United India before us all the time. We have faced many challenges and many difficulties in the past. We have always overcome them. Today we are faced with food shortages not in one State but in many parts of the country. Food shortages have created a new problem and new doubts in our minds. We may recall that when India became free, we were assailed with doubts whether we would be able to form a stable Government and maintain the unity of the country. After the partition of the country, there was aggression on Kashmir. Later Gandhiji was assassinated. Our great leaders left us one by one. However, side-by-side, the people of India gained strength. India’s real strength lies in her huge populace.

We have undoubtedly made progress in the economic sphere. We have set up new industries. We have increased agricultural production. We have to maintain the rate of progress in the agricultural and industrial fields. 

We have made every effort to reach food-grains to deficit areas. You are aware that West Bengal, Kerala, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and many other parts of the country are faced with food shortages. Through the efforts of the Government and non-official organizations, the needs of the people were met to some extent. I would like to congratulate the people of these States for the courage with which they faced difficulties. They have upheld the honour of India. They have shown that a free nation is capable of overcoming difficulties.

The people of India are faced with many other problems. There is the problem of rising prices. There is a demand for higher wages. This problem is not confined to India. The whole world is faced with the problem of rising prices and the demand for higher wages. It is a vicious circle of rising prices, higher rents, higher wages and again higher prices. It is our endeavour to break this vicious circle. We want to stabilise prices. We have all to co-operate to solve this problem. We have to make sacrifices. We should restrict our purchases of consumer goods. It is not easy problem. The poorer sections of the community are the worst sufferers. I have the greatest sympathy for them. We have to find ways and means of solving this problem.

I know that everyone wants an increase in his wage. People are also worried that they can buy very little even with increased wages. We have to find a solution to the problem of people's needs. We have limited resources. We have to consider ways and means of augmenting our resources. If we can increase our resources by suffering hardship, we should not hesitate to do so. Then our difficulties will end soon.

Our constitution envisages the formation of Governments by different parties in different States. Today we have Government of different complexions. They have freedom to follow their own paths. It has always been our endeavour to extend the fullest co-operation to them. Sometimes, perhaps in anger, or perhaps because of their helplessness in the face of difficulties, the States accuse us of discriminatory treatment. The charge of discrimination is absolutely baseless. India is one nation. We treat all citizens equally. All States are equal in our eyes. It is our endeavour to ensure equitable distribution of food and other resources. We want to remove the difficulties of all. But as our resources are limited, we can only share what we have. I do hope that the people will appreciate our difficulty and co-operate with us.

We have taken up many projects for the development of the country. We have spread education. Progress in such fields as women's welfare, development of communications and industrialisation has brought many changes. We have opened up new vistas of progress. But as we progress in new fields, new difficulties arise. All sections of the community are faced with difficulties. Unrest is a world phenomenon, whether it is among students or other sections. There are problems of race, language or other similar problems facing various countries. We should not magnify our difficulties.

Two years ago, our leaders put forward a proposal that education up to the university level should be in the mother tongue so that the benefits of education could reach everyone and the talents of the people could find a natural outlet. Can we achieve this? Even a good proposal might encourage separatism. This proposal could prove beneficial if there are link languages, which can bind people together and thus help maintain national unity. Similarly, there is need to maintain links with the world. We cannot afford to live in isolation in the present-day world. It will prove harmful to our interests. Therefore, there should be three languages-the regional language, a national link-language and an international language. We have to consider how the difficulties of the people in various parts of the country can be minimized and how they can be helped in every possible way. No one should have the feeling that something is being thrust on him or that impediments are being put in his path.

Sometimes we think that a particular view is beneficial to the people at large. But there are people with a different view. In this matter we have to carry the people with us. We cannot ignore the views of others. We have to find a solution which is acceptable to all, and which does not weaken our democratic structure or our national unity. The question of language generates emotion and anger. If a proper solution is found, language can become a force for national unity and national progress.

Regional tendencies have been on the increase. The people of each State think that if development schemes are implemented in that particular State, India will make rapid progress. Unfortunately, our resources are limited. We have to determine an order of priorities for different development schemes. We must look upon all States as our own. There is no need to feel upset if a development scheme is implemented in another State. We should be patient. Gradually, all development schemes will be implemented. We should draw inspiration from our past when we overcame innumerable difficulties.

We need peace for our progress. We want peace at home and abroad. We stand for world peace. There are tensions even in a family, between brothers and sisters. We have always stood for peaceful solutions for all questions. It has always been and continues to be our endeavour that all questions should be solved through peaceful means. But if there is aggression on our borders, we will meet it with all our might. A few days ago, I visited some forward areas. Our officers and Jawans are guarding our borders with courage. They are not deterred by adverse weather conditions. I have seen them guard the snowy mountains. I assured them that the entire nation was behind them. I conveyed to them the good wishes of the Government and people of India. I have full confidence that the honour of India is safe in the hands of our Armed Forces. Let us not forget that we have a responsibility too. Our officers and Jawans are bearing hardship and are prepared to sacrifice their lives to protect the territorial integrity of India. We should also be ready to bear hardship and make sacrifices. We should keep in view our objectives.

What is socialism? There are differing definitions. A simple definition of socialism is that poverty should be eradicated; disparities between the rich and the poor should be reduced; the backward people - be they Harijans, adivasis or the hill people-should have equal opportunities to make progress; and there should be equal distribution of national resources. This is our socialism and this is our goal. We want to achieve this goal rapidly.

Sons and daughters of India-be you workers or kisans [farmers], businessmen or industrialists, teachers or students, writers or artists-you are all inhabitants of this great country. You should not forget this for a moment. Through your veins runs the blood of heroes and great men. Let diffidence give way to confidence; let despair give way to hope. We will then be able to build a strong nation; we will then be able to raise the structure of a beautiful Bharat. We are capable of doing so. We have embarked on an exciting venture. We shall face every difficulty-be it war or famine-with courage and determination. We shall not let the nation go under.

My countrymen join me with all your heart in raising the national slogan. Let this slogan echo all over. Let it be a symbol of our national strength. Let it guide us towards national progress. Jai Hind.

51. With reference to the Red Fort, choose the INCORRECT statement

a. It is red in colour, located in Delhi

b. It was the place from where banner of freedom was several times raised

c. It houses the army headquarters

d. The message of unity and freedom went out from her

52. What did that 'do or die' message Gandhiji convey to the people of India?

a. Cultivate enough foodgrains or die of starvation

b. Spin your own cloth, or die in the process

c. Achieve deliverance from British rule

d. Picket foreign cloth or die in the attempt


Talking about the emergence of a new generation, the author makes statements of which one is NOT true. Find that out

a. A new generation is born

b. It is not aware that India lived in slavery

c. It is not aware of out freedom struggle

d. It is aware of the reality that hungry masses won the country's freedom


Referring to the situation of 'then' and now, the author points out statements. Select the     statement which is not true about the situation.

a. There was no lack of spirit of enterprise

b. People had no avenues of progress

c. There were few facilities for the education of children

d. The living conditions were not satisfactory


What is the advice of the author for the people stuck up in the middle of the swollen river?

a. The says that we should cross it with courage and determination

b. The says that we cannot afford to look back

c. The says that we should continue our progress

d. All the three above put together

56. The author advises us to grid up our belts and fight against

a. Communalism

b. Linguism

c. Casteism

d. All the three above put together


In order to face the problem of the vicious circle of rising prices, higher rents, higher wages and higher prices, the author suggests

a. Stabilisation of prices is out of question

b. Cooperation among the public is not easy to achieve

c. We should refrain from purchasing consumer goods

d. We should restrict the purchase of consumer goods


So far as the Jawans on our border areas are concerned, what is the statement that is NOT true?

a. They are deterred by adverse weather

b. They guard our borders with courage

c. They protect the snowy mountains

d. They believe in discipline being their watchword

59. What according to author, is a 'simple' definition of socialism?

a.  A society where class distinction prevails

b.  A system, which empowers the ruling class

c.  A system, which aims at reducing disparities.

d.  A social set up that gives impetus to economic growth.

60. How does the author classify the expression 'Jai Hind'?

a. As a national adage

b. As a national emblem

c. As a national logo

d. As a national slogan